Tar Creek: A History of the Quapaw Indians, the World's Largest Lead and Zinc Discovery, and the Tar Creek Superfund Site
A small tribe of Indians, the Quapaws, survived civilization. A group of criminals, the likes of Bonnie and Clyde, found refuge. The wealth that poured from the ground created some of the richest Indians in the World. And Mickey Mantle got his start as a lead and zinc miner. All these events, and more, took place in or around a small community known as Picher, Oklahoma. And from the early part of the twentieth century, that community was nearly hidden under millions of tons of chat waste piles. Join author Larry Johnson on an exciting adventure starting with the origin of the Native American tribes, leading up to the horrific environmental hazards and final destruction of this town in the May 2008 tornadoes. Tar Creek effectively spins the true tale of the Quapaw Indians, the world's greatest discovery of lead and zinc, and the making of the oldest and largest environmental Superfund site in America. Organically encompassed in this tale are the first footsteps of the American Indian in the Western Hemisphere, the founding of the United States, and the transition of Indian Territories into statehood. Tar Creek is an hourglass with the discovery of lead and zinc at Picher as the skinny neck through which all of the interconnected acts and events preceding the discovery are slowly moving, resulting in the repercussions ninety years later. You'll be engaged and awed as you learn the real story on the journey to Tar Creek.
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IntroductionBeginning of a Journey
Part IOrigins of the Quapaw
The QuapawThe Downstream People
Part IILead and Zinc Mining Era in the TriState Region
Part IIIMining Aftermath and the Quapaws in the TwentyFirst Century
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Abrams acid mine water acres allotment American April Arkansas arrived Baird Baxter Springs began Ben Moody Blue Card Union Caddo Central Mill century chat piles Cherokee Cherokee Outlet Chief Chronicles of Oklahoma Commissioner of Indian Company Congress Creek Superfund culture discovery Downstream drill early efforts feet French Galena Gibson Government Printing Office History of Ottawa Ibid Indian Affairs Indian Knoll Indian Territory Inhofe Iroquois Joplin Joplin Globe June Kansas land lead and zinc lease loaded located Louisiana man’s Miami Miami-Picher Mickey Mickey Mantle miles miners mineshaft Mississippi Missouri Mound Builder Nieberding northeastern occurred Ohio Oklahoma Territory operators Osage Ottawa County Peoria Picher Mining Quapaw Indians—A History Quapaw reservation Red River residents rock Roubidoux Secretary settlers shaft silicosis Superfund surface tion town treaty Tri-State Mining District Tri-State Tribune tribal tribe Tulsa World Unassigned Lands United villages Washington Wilderness Bonanza Yester-year