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Prior Research on the SpendingAchievement Relationship
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above-average academic achievement analysis Assessment of Educational average below-average calculated capital outlays ceiling effects central office administration characteristics chi-square chi-square statistic Coleman Report Common Core Core of Data Cost Index TCI cost Regions data base Data CCD district level Educational Progress NAEP Educational Testing Service effect eighth graders endogenous variables estimates fixed at zero fourth and eighth fourth graders funds high-cost regions high-SES hypothesized Increased teacher-student ratios inputs instructional expenditures instructional spending Item Response Theory LISREL low-cost regions low-SES mathematics achievement measures ment meta-analyses National Assessment NCES number of students percent plausible values poor school districts production function pupil expenditures raise achievement raise student achievement result school environment school finance reform school level school social environment school spending scores socio-economic status spending and achievement standard deviations student performance student ratios students/teacher subgroups teacher education Teacher's Cost Index Teachers Cost tion types of spending variations Wenglinsky Westat