The Ethnic Revival
Since the Second World War, the world has witnessed a remarkable efflorescence of ethnic feeling and nationalist aspirations. Among Bretons, Basques, Scots, Welsh, Flemish, Quebecois, Catalans, Kurds, Ibo, Somali, and a host of other communities, ethnic movements demanding much greater autonomy, or even independence, have sprung up. Originally published in 1981, this book explores the ethnic separatisms and 'neo-nationalisms' that, at the time, threatened to undermine the fragile stability of the world order and to annul liberal and cosmopolitan dreams of world government and a universal scientific culture. What were the underlying causes of this ethnic revival? Why did it assume worldwide proportions? Anthony D. Smith claims that to uncover the cultural root and mental spring of the ethnic renaissance we must look to the development of a sense of history that first arose in eighteenth-century Europe.
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AN ETHNIC REVIVAL?
Modern ethnic strategies
Imperialism and underdevelopment
The loss of community
Ethnie and regions
The naturalness of ethnicity
BUREAUCRACY AND THE INTELLIGENTSIA
STATE INTEGRATION AND ETHNIC SCHISM
ACCOMMODATION AND NEOETHNICITY
TOWARDS THE SCIENTIFIC STATE
A. D. Smith Africa alism ancient areas Asia aspirations assimilationist autonomist autonomy BaKongo Basque Basque country become Black bourgeoisie Breton Brittany bureaucratic capitalist Catalan central centralised century cleavages client-systems Connor cultural dominant economic elites empires Esman ethnic communities ethnic groups ethnic historicism ethnic movements ethnic nationalism ethnic revival ethnic sentiment ethnonationalism Europe European expertise factors French Gellner global growth Hechter Hence historical historicism historicist humanistic ibid ical ideal identity ideology industrial intel interests irredentism Kurds language liberal marxist ment mobilisation mobility modern ethnic revival modernisation munity myths Nairn nation-state nationalist neo-nationalisms organisation parties peasantry Plaid Cymru plural political population profes professional intelligentsia recent regions religion religious revolution rise role scientific secular intellectuals sense separatism social society strata stratum superpowers technical intelligentsia tend territorial theory Third World tion tional traditions transformation trend tural unique United urban western