The New Global Frontier: Urbanization, Poverty and Environment in the 21st Century
Earthscan, May 23, 2012 - Architecture - 400 pages
The worlds developing countries will be experiencing massive increases in their urban populations over the 21st century. If managed intelligently and humanely, this growth can pave the way to sustainable development; otherwise, it will favour higher levels of poverty and environmental stress. The outcome depends on decisions being made now.The principal theme that runs through this volume is the need to transform urbanization into a positive force for development. Part I of this book reviews the demography of the urban transition, stressing the importance of benefi cial rural-urban connections and challenging commonly held misconceptions. Part II asks how urban housing, land and service provision can be improved in the face of rapid urban expansion, drawing lessons from experiences around the world. Part III analyses the challenges and opportunities that urbanization presents for improving living environments and reducing pressures on local and global ecosystems. These social and environmental challenges must be met in the context of fast-changing demographic circumstances; Part IV explores the range of opportunities that these transformations represent. These challenges and opportunities vary greatly across Africa, Asia and Latin America, as detailed in Part V.Published with IIED and UNFPA
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Asia beneﬁts cent challenges chapter China climate change coastal deﬁned deﬁnitions demographic demographic transition developing countries developing world difﬁcult distribution ecological economic growth ecosystem Environment and Urbanization environmental estimates fertility ﬁnance ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬁve ﬂows gender global governments groups households housing impact improvements income India inﬂuence informal settlements infrastructure internal migration issues labour LAC region land Latin America levels living low-income McGranahan Millennium Development Goals Millennium Ecosystem Assessment million municipal non-slum ofﬁcial organizations OUPs patterns planning policymakers population growth programmes projects reduce reﬂect region rural and urban rural areas rural–urban migration sanitation sector signiﬁcant slums social South Africa spatial speciﬁc sprawl strategies sub-Saharan Africa trends UN-Habitat UNFPA United Nations urban and rural urban areas urban centres urban development urban growth urban poor urban population urban poverty urban sprawl urban transition vulnerability women World Bank zones