## Quantum Optics: An IntroductionMost previous texts on quantum optics have been written primarily for the graduate student market at PhD level and above. Quantum optics: an introduction aims to introduce a wide range of topics at a lower level suitable for advanced undergraduate and Masters level students in physics. The text is divided into four main parts, covering modern topics in both pure and applied quantum optics: I. Introduction and background material. II. Photons. III. Atom-photon interactions. IV. Quantum information processing. The emphasis of the subject development is on intuitive physical understanding rather than mathematical arguments, although many derivations are included where appropriate. The text includes numerous illustrations, with a particular emphasis on the experimental observations of quantum optical phenomena. Each chapter includes worked examples, together with 10-15 exercises with solutions. Six appendices are included to supplement the main subject material. |

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### Contents

3 | |

Quantum mechanics | 26 |

Radiative transitions in atoms | 48 |

Photons | 73 |

Photon antibunching | 105 |

Coherent states and squeezed light | 126 |

Photon number states | 151 |

Atomphoton interactions | 165 |

Quantum computing | 264 |

Entangled states and quantum teleportation | 296 |

Appendices | 321 |

The density of states | 330 |

E Nuclear magnetic resonance | 339 |

F BoseEinstein condensation | 346 |

Solutions and hints to the exercises | 352 |

360 | |

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### Common terms and phrases

absorption Alice ampliﬁer amplitude angle angular frequency angular momentum antibunching band beam splitter Bell’s Bloch sphere Bloch vector Bose–Einstein condensation Calculate cavity classical coeﬃcient coherent consider cooling correlation crystal deﬁned deﬁnition density detection detector diﬀerent dipole eﬀect eﬃciency Einstein electric ﬁeld electromagnetic electrons emitted energy equation example excited experiment experimental ﬁbre ﬁeld ﬁnal ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬂuctuations ﬂux gate given in eqn harmonic oscillator Hence input intensity interaction interferometer laser cooling light beam magnetic ﬁeld measurement mode nonlinear operator output particles phase photocurrent photodiode photon number photon statistics Phys Poissonian polarization pulse quadratures quantized quantum computer quantum cryptography quantum dots quantum numbers quantum optics qubits reﬂectivity resonant rotation schematically second-order Section semiconductor shot noise shown in Fig signal single-photon spectral spin spontaneous emission sub-Poissonian teleportation temperature tion transition vacuum wave function wavelength zero