## Fundamentals of CeramicsUpdated and improved, this revised edition of Michel Barsoum's classic text Fundamentals of Ceramics presents readers with an exceptionally clear and comprehensive introduction to ceramic science. Barsoum offers introductory coverage of ceramics, their structures, and properties, with a distinct emphasis on solid state physics and chemistry. Key equations are derived from first principles to ensure a thorough understanding of the concepts involved. The book divides naturally into two parts. Chapters 1 to 9 consider bonding in ceramics and their resultant physical structures, and the electrical, thermal, and other properties that are dependent on bonding type. The second part (Chapters 11 to 16) deals with those factors that are determined by microstructure, such as fracture and fatigue, and thermal, dielectric, magnetic, and optical properties. Linking the two sections is Chapter 10, which describes sintering, grain growth, and the development of microstructure. Fundamentals of Ceramics is ideally suited to senior undergraduate and graduate students of materials science and engineering and related subjects. |

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### Contents

Introduction | xvii |

12 Definition of Ceramics | xviii |

13 Elementary Crystallography | 2 |

14 Ceramic Microstructures | 4 |

15 Traditional Versus Advanced Ceramics | 5 |

17 Applications | 6 |

18 The Future | 8 |

Problems | 9 |

92 Glass Formation | 264 |

93 Glass Structure | 278 |

94 Glass Properties | 281 |

95 GlassCeramics | 291 |

96 Summary | 294 |

Derivation of Eq 97 | 295 |

Additional Reading | 298 |

Sintering and Grain Growth | 300 |

Additional Reading | 10 |

Bonding in Ceramics | 11 |

22 Structure of Atoms | 12 |

23 Ionic Versus Covalent Bonding | 21 |

24 Ionic Bonding | 23 |

25 Ionically Bonded Solids | 26 |

26 Covalent Bond Formation | 31 |

27 Covalently Bonded Solids | 35 |

28 Band Theory of Solids | 36 |

29 Summary | 45 |

Problems | 46 |

Additional Reading | 49 |

Structure of Ceramics | 50 |

32 Ceramic Structures | 52 |

33 Binary Ionic Compounds | 57 |

34 Composite Crystal Structures | 63 |

35 Structure of Covalent Ceramics | 65 |

36 Structure of Silicates | 68 |

37 Lattice Parameters and Density Lattice parameters | 73 |

38 Summary | 77 |

Ionic Radii | 78 |

Problems | 82 |

Additional Reading | 85 |

Effect of Chemical Forces on Physical Properties | 86 |

43 Thermal Expansion | 92 |

44 Youngs Modulus and the Strength of Perfect Solids | 97 |

45 Surface Energy | 100 |

46 Summary | 104 |

Additional Reading | 107 |

Thermodynamic and Kinetic Considerations | 108 |

52 Free Energy | 109 |

53 Chemical Equilibrium and the Mass Action Expression | 120 |

54 Chemical Stability Domains | 121 |

55 Electrochemical Potentials | 124 |

56 Charged Interfaces Double Layers and Debye Lengths | 125 |

57 GibbsDuhem Relation for Binary Oxides | 127 |

58 Kinetic Considerations | 129 |

59 Summary | 131 |

Problems | 132 |

Additional Reading | 133 |

Defects in Ceramics | 135 |

62 Point Defects | 136 |

63 Linear Defects | 164 |

64 Planar Defects | 166 |

65 Summary | 168 |

Problems | 169 |

Additional Reading | 172 |

Diffuson and Electrical Conductivity | 173 |

72 Diffusion | 174 |

73 Electrical Conductivity | 190 |

74 Ambipolar Diffusion | 210 |

75 Relationships Between Self Tracer Chemical Ambipolar and Defect Diffusion Coefficients | 222 |

76 Summary | 225 |

Relationship Between Picks First Law and Eq 730 | 227 |

Effective Mass and Density of States | 228 |

Derivation of Eq 779 | 230 |

Derivation of Eq 792 | 231 |

Problems | 232 |

Additional Reading | 239 |

Phase Equilibria | 240 |

82 Phase Rule | 241 |

83 OneComponent Systems | 242 |

84 Binary Systems | 245 |

85 Ternary Systems | 253 |

86 FreeEnergy Composition and Temperature Diagrams | 255 |

87 Summary | 260 |

Problems | 261 |

Additional Reading | 262 |

Formation Structure and Properties of Glasses | 263 |

102 SolidState Sintering | 302 |

103 Sintering Kinetics | 313 |

104 LiquidPhase Sintering | 335 |

105 Hot Pressing and Hot Isostatic Pressing | 341 |

106 Summary | 343 |

Derivation of the GibbsThompson Equation | 344 |

Derivation of Eq 1020 | 345 |

Derivation of Eq 1022 | 347 |

Problems | 348 |

Additional Reading | 352 |

Mechanical Properties Fast Fracture | 354 |

112 Fracture Toughness | 356 |

113 Strength of Ceramics | 371 |

114 Toughening Mechanisms | 378 |

115 Designing With Ceramics | 385 |

116 Summary | 392 |

Problems | 393 |

Additional Reading | 397 |

Creep Subcritical Crack Growth and Fatigue | 398 |

122 Creep | 399 |

123 Subcritical Crack Growth | 413 |

124 Fatigue of Ceramics | 420 |

125 Lifetime Predictions | 423 |

126 Summary | 430 |

Derivation of Eq 1224 | 431 |

Problems | 433 |

Additional Reading | 438 |

Thermal Properties | 440 |

132 Thermal Stresses | 441 |

133 Thermal Shock | 445 |

134 Spontaneous Microcracking of Ceramics | 450 |

135 Thermal Tempering of Glass | 454 |

136 Thermal Conductivity | 456 |

137 Summary | 458 |

Problems | 459 |

Additional Reading | 462 |

Dielectric Properties | 463 |

142 Basic Theory | 464 |

143 Equivalent Circuit Description of Linear Dielectrics | 469 |

144 Polarization Mechanisms | 474 |

145 Dielectric Loss | 490 |

146 Dielectric Breakdown | 492 |

148 Summary | 495 |

A Local Electric Field | 496 |

Problems | 497 |

Additional Reading | 503 |

Magnetic and Nonlinear Dielectric Properties | 505 |

152 Basic Theory | 506 |

153 Microscopic Theory | 512 |

154 Para Ferro Antiferro and Ferrimagnetism | 517 |

155 Magnetic Domains and the Hysteresis Curve | 523 |

156 Magnetic Ceramics and their Applications | 527 |

157 Piezo and Ferroelectric Ceramics | 535 |

158 Summary | 545 |

Orbital Magnetic Quantum Number | 546 |

Problems | 547 |

Additional Reading | 549 |

Optical Properties | 551 |

162 Basic Principles | 553 |

163 Absorption and Transmission | 563 |

164 Scattering and Opacity | 570 |

165 Fiber Optics and Optical Communication | 574 |

166 Summary | 578 |

Coherence | 579 |

Problems | 580 |

Additional Reading | 585 |

587 | |

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### Common terms and phrases

anions Answer applied field applied stress assumed atoms band gap bond Calculate cations ceramics Chap charge chemical potential coefficient composition compound concentration conduction band configuration covalent covalently bonded crack tip creep crystal cubic curve defects defined densification density dependence dielectric constant diffusion discussed driving force electric field electron enthalpy entropy equation equilibrium example experimental ferroelectric ferromagnetic Figure flaws flux follows formation fraction free energy frequency function given glass gradient grain boundary growth heat important increases interface interstitial ionic ionic bond ions lattice liquid material measured mechanisms melting point metal microstructure NaCl nonstoichiometric Note nucleation occurs octahedral orbitals oxide oxygen oxygen partial pressure partial pressure particles phase diagram plotted polarization pores Prob properties radius ratio reaction result sample scattering shown in Fig silicate sintering solid solution spinel stoichiometric strength structure surface energy temperature tetrahedral thermal expansion transformation unit cell vacancy values versus volume York

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