Halophilic Microorganisms and their Environments

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Springer Science & Business Media, Aug 31, 2002 - Nature - 575 pages
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"This water" he told me, "runs out to the eastern region, and flows into the Arabah; and when it comes into the sea, into the sea of foul waters [i. e. , the Dead Sea], the water will become wholesome. Every living creature that swarms will be able to live wherever this stream goes; the fish will be very abundant once these waters have reached there. It will be wholesome, and everything will live wherever this stream goes. Fishermen shall stand beside it all the way from En-gedi to En-eglaim; it shall be a place for drying nets; and the fish will be of various kinds [and] most plentiful, like the fish of the Great Sea. " Ezekiel’s prophecy (Ezekiel 47: 8-10) for revival and purification of the Dead Sea waters This new book on "Halophilic Microorganisms and their Environments" is the fifth volume in the COLE series (Cellular Origin and Life in Extreme Habitats (see: http://www. wkap. nl/prod/s/COLE). In the previous books we covered aspects of enigmatic microorganisms, microbial diversity, astrobiology, and symbiosis, so this book on halophilic microbes adds a fitting link to the rest of series' books. Since ancient times hypersaline habitats have been considered extreme environments, and some were thought not to sustain life at all. Yet, every organism requires salt for its existence. Salty places have been compared to an environment of extinction (e. g. , the Dead Sea).
 

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Contents

HALOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS IN THEIR NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND IN CULTURE AN HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION
2
12 THE FIRST RECORDS OF THE ISOLATION OF HALOPHILIC ARCHAEA AND BACTERIA
4
13 DUNALIELLA AND OTHER HALOPHILIC ALGAE
7
THE GREAT SALT LAKE
8
15 ALKALINE SODA LAKES
9
16 THE DEAD SEA
10
18 THE BEGINNING OF THE MODERN ERA OF HALOPHILE RESEARCH
12
REFERENCES
13
112 APPLICATIONS OF HALOPHILIC ARCHAEA
358
113 APPLICATIONS OF HALOPHILIC BACTERIA
366
114 APPLICATIONS OF HALOPHILIC EUCARYA
374
115 REFERENCES
379
HYPERSALINE ENVIRONMENTS AND THEIR BIOTA
388
INTRODUCTION
392
CHAPTER 12 GREAT SALT LAKE UTAH
394
122 THE MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES OF THE GREAT SALT LAKE
399

HALOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS AND THEIR PROPERTIES
16
INTRODUCTION
17
TAXONOMY OF HALOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS ARCHAEA BACTERIA AND EUCARYA
22
22 THE HALOPHILIC ARCHAEA
24
23 THE HALOPHILIC AND HALOTOLERANT BACTERIA
35
24 THE HALOPHILIC AND HALOTOLERANT EUCARYA
55
25 REFERENCES
56
THE CELLULAR STRUCTURE OF HALOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS
68
32 CELLULAR STRUCTURES OF THE HALOPHILIC BACTERIA
98
33 CELLULAR STRUCTURES OF THE HALOPHILIC EUCARYA
109
34 REFERENCES
110
CELLULAR METABOLISM AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HALOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS
123
42 PHYSIOLOGY OF HALOPHILIC BACTERIA
145
43 PHYSIOLOGY OF HALOPHILIC EUCARYA
151
44 METABOLIC DIVERSITY AMONG THE HALOPHILES A BIOENERGETIC APPROACH
152
45 REFERENCES
156
PIGMENTS OF HALOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS
171
51 ALGAL CAROTENOIDS
173
52 PIGMENTS OF OXYGENIC AND ANOXYGENIC PHOTOSYNTHETIC BACTERIA
177
53 CAROTENOIDS OF AEROBIC HETEROTROPHIC ARCHAEA AND BACTERIA
178
BACTERIORHODOPSIN HALORHODOPSIN AND SENSORY RHODOPSINS
182
55 THE PHOTOACTIVE YELLOW PROTEIN OF HALORHODOSPIRA AND OTHER HALOPHILIC PURPLE BACTERIA
195
56 REFERENCES
197
INTRACELLULAR SALT CONCENTRATIONS AND ION METABOLISM IN HALOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS
206
62 METHODS USED TO ESTIMATE INTRACELLULAR IONIC CONCENTRATIONS IN HALOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS
207
63 ION METABOLISM IN THE HALOBACTERIACEAE
209
64 ION METABOLISM IN AEROBIC HALOPHILIC BACTERIA
213
65 ION METABOLISM IN THE HALANAEROBIALES
222
67 REFERENCES
226
PROPERTIES OF HALOPHILIC PROTEINS
231
72 HALOPHILIC BEHAVIOR OF ENZYMES FROM HALOPHILIC ARCHAEA
234
73 PURIFICATION OF HALOPHILIC PROTEINS
239
74 SALT RELATIONSHIPS OF SELECTED PROTEINS FROM HALOPHILIC
248
75 HALOPHILIC BEHAVIOR OF ENZYMES FROM THE AEROBIC HALOPHILIC BACTERIA
252
76 HALOPHILIC BEHAVIOR OF ENZYMES FROM THE ANAEROBIC HALOPHILIC BACTERIA
263
78 REFERENCES
266
ORGANIC COMPATIBLE SOLUTES
278
82 COMPATIBLE SOLUTES IN THE DOMAIN ARCHAEA
283
83 COMPATIBLE SOLUTES IN THE DOMAIN BACTERIA
285
84 COMPATIBLE SOLUTES IN THE DOMAIN EUCARYA
293
85 THE MODE OF ACTION OF COMPATIBLE SOLUTES
296
86 REFERENCES
298
HALOPHILIC BACTERIOPHAGES AND HALOCINS
305
92 HALOCINS
315
93 REFERENCES
318
GENETICS AND GENOMICS OF HALOPHILIC ARCHAEA AND BACTERIA
321
102 GENETICS OF HALOPHILIC ARCHAEA
323
103 GENETICS OF HALOPHILIC BACTERIA
342
104 REFERENCES
347
BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS AND POTENTIALS OF HALOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS
355
123 MICROBIAL ISOLATES AND THEIR PROPERTIES
406
124 BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES
408
125 REFERENCES
414
THE DEAD SEA
417
132 EARLY STUDIES ON THE BIOTA OF THE DEAD SEA
422
133 DYNAMICS OF MICROBIAL BLOOMS IN THE DEAD SEA
423
134 MICROBIAL ISOLATES AND THEIR PROPERTIES
430
135 ADAPTATIONS OF THE DEAD SEA BIOTA TO THE IONIC COMPOSITION OF THE LAKE
432
136 THE NATURE OF THE SPECIES DOMINANT IN THE ARCHAEAL BLOOMS
433
138 BIOLOGY OF THE DEAD SEA EXPECTED FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
434
139 REFERENCES
435
SOLAR SALTERNS
440
142 BENTHIC MICROBIAL MATS IN THE EVAPORATION PONDS
443
143 MICROBIAL ISOLATES AND THEIR PROPERTIES
447
144 APPROACHES TOWARD THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE DOMINANT ARCHAEA IN SALTERN CRYSTALLIZER PONDS
450
145 SALINIBACTER AND OTHER HALOPHILIC BACTERIA IN SALTERN PONDS
452
146 PIGMENTS IN SALTERN CRYSTALLIZER PONDS
453
147 DYNAMICS OF ARCHAEAL AND BACTERIAL COMMUNITIES IN SALTERN PONDS
454
148 THE IMPORTANCE OF THE SALTERN BIOTA IN THE PRODUCTION OF SOLAR SALT
458
149 REFERENCES
461
ALKALINE HYPERSALINE LAKES IN AFRICA AND ASIA
469
151 THE WADI NATRUN LAKES
471
152 LAKE MAGADI AND OTHER EASTAFRICAN SODA LAKES
477
153 HYPERSALINE SODA LAKES IN ASIA CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
488
154 REFERENCES
490
MONO LAKE CALIFORNIA AND BIG SODA LAKE NEVADA
494
162 MONO LAKE CALIFORNIA
495
163 BIG SODA LAKE NEVADA
507
164 REFERENCES
511
MISCELLANEOUS HABITATS OF HALOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS FROM ANTARCTCTIC LAKES TO HYDROTHERMAL VENTS
515
SOLAR LAKE SINAI AND OTHER WARM BRINES
518
173 SEAWATER DEEP SEA BRINES AND HYDROTHERMAL VENTS
524
174 HALOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS IN OIL FIELD BRINES
527
176 HYPERSALINE SPRINGS
530
177 HYPERSALINE SOILS
531
179 DESERT PLANTS AND ANIMALS
532
EPILOGUE
538
EPILOGUE EVOLUTION OF HALOPHILES AND SURVIVAL OF HALOPHILES ON EARTH AND IN SPACE
542
182 LONGTIME SURVIVAL OF HALOPHILES IN ANCIENT SALT CRYSTALS
544
183 HALOPHILES IN SPACE?
547
184 REFERENCES
548
SUPPLEMENT
551
METHODS FOR CULTIVATION AND HANDLING OF HALOPHILIC ARCHAEA AND BACTERIA
554
GLOSSARY OF LIMNOLOGICAL TERMS
558
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
559
ORGANISM INDEX
561
GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX
566
SUBJECT INDEX
569
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About the author (2002)

Oren, Division of Microbial and Molecular Ecology, Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

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