A Program to Play Chess End Games
A program to play chess end games is described. The model used in the program is very close to the model assumed in chess books. Embedded in the model are two predicates, better and worse, which contain the heuristics of play, different for each end game. The definitions of better and worse were obtained by programmer translation from the chess books. The program model is shown to be a good one for chess end games by the success achieved for three end games. Also the model enables us to prove that the program can reach checkmate from any starting position. Insights about translation from book problem solving methods into computer program heuristics are discussed; they are obtained by comparing the chess book methods with the definitions of better and worse, and by considering the difficulty encountered by the programmer when doing the translation. (Author).
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Additions to better better and worse better position bishop moves black corner black king moves black move black to move boundary branch breadth first search Chapter chess books chess end games condition corner d(bk define definitions of better diagonal edge edge(x eliminate Examples of Program force a smaller force the black formal definition G stage goal square head bishop head quadrant head(q killer heuristic King against King knight move mate method move leading move the white non-head quadrants p2 in Figure pattern recognition position q position with black positions with white poss(p program play proof propositional calculus quad reach checkmate rejected Rook end game rook move smaller area smaller quadrant squad(p st(q stage 2 position stages and measures stalemate starting position subsets tempo move Theorem translation process tree of depth tree search white move white pieces white to move wk,bk)=d wk,bk worse(p