Sex and Education: A Reply to Dr. E. H. Clarke's "Sex in Education."

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Julia Ward Howe
Roberts brothers, 1874 - Women - 203 pages
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This compilation of essays from women in all areas of the 19th century woman's movement attacks the notion, popularized by Clarke's Sex in Education (Gerritsen no. A540), that women are physiologically incapable of withstanding the rigors of higher education.

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Page 140 - If these causes should continue for the next half-century, and increase in the same ratio as they have for the last fifty years, it requires no prophet to foretell that the wives who are to be mothers in our republic must be drawn from trans-atlantic homes. The sons of the New World will have to re-act, on a magnificent scale, the old story of unwived Rome and the Sabines.
Page 149 - ... discovered or measured any chemical action or nerve-force that stamps either of these systems as male or female. The inference is legitimate, that intellectual power, the correlation and measure of cerebral structure and metamorphosis, is capable of equal development in both sexes." And finally : — "Physiology confirms the hope of the race by asserting that the loftiest heights of intellectual and spiritual vision and force are free to each sex, and accessible by each.
Page 55 - the higher the state of civilization and refinement, the more unmarried women there are." At the age of thirty-four, Rebecca Pennell was more than ready for marriage. To her father, Mary Mann confided, "What should you think if I tell you that we think . . . Mr. Dean will carry off Rebecca? ... He is the last person we should ever have imagined her manying, but there is no accounting for...
Page 40 - My own impression is that he would find it hard to prove this. • 4. But there is still a fourth class of facts, only to be obtained by an extensive record of individual instances. Letting go all discriminations of locality, race, and social position, and looking only at individuals under similar conditions, is Dr. Clarke prepared to assert that, as a rule, it is the hardest students in the school who become invalids ? He would say, on a priori grounds, that it must be so.
Page 151 - ... way. They may study the same books, and attain an equal result, but should not follow the same method. Mary can master Virgil and Euclid as well as George; but both will be dwarfed — defrauded of their rightful attainment — if both are confined to the same methods. It is said that Elena Cornaro, the accomplished professor of six languages, whose statue adorns and honors Padua, was educated like a boy. This means that she was initiated into, and mastered, the studies that were considered to...
Page 39 - I can observe, the effect _of climate, change of diet, change of living, on all these classes, is almost sure to produce the same result of delicacy, almost of fragility, in the second generation, with or without schooling ; and among the boys almost as much as among the girls. A physician in a large manufacturing town once told me that the unhealthiest class of the community, in his opinion, consisted of the sons of Irish parents.
Page 118 - ... is so great, as to excite the gravest alarm, and to demand the serious attention of the community. If these causes should continue for the next half-century, and increase in the same ratio as they have...
Page 158 - This growing period or formative epoch extends from birth to the age of twenty or twenty-five years. Its duration is shorter for a girl than for a boy. She ripens quicker than he. In the four years from fourteen to eighteen, she accomplishes an amount of physiological cell change and growth which Nature does not require of a boy in less than twice that number of years.
Page 202 - A breaking down in health does not appear to be more frequent than with young men. We have not observed a more frequent interruption of study on this account; nor do our statistics show a greater draft upon the vital forces in > the case of those who have completed the full college course. Out of eighty-four young ladies who have graduated since 1841, seven have died — a proportion of one in twelve.
Page 199 - ABOUT eighty of the students are of the sex which some call " weaker," but which here, at any rate, is shown to be equal in endurance, in courage, in perseverance, in devotion to study, and in cheerful confidence, to the strong and stalwart men.

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