Deep Learning: How the Mind Overrides Experience
Although the ability to retain, process, and project prior experience onto future situations is indispensable, the human mind also possesses the ability to override experience and adapt to changing circumstances. Cognitive scientist Stellan Ohlsson analyzes three types of deep, non-monotonic cognitive change: creative insight, adaptation of cognitive skills by learning from errors, and conversion from one belief to another, incompatible belief. For each topic, Ohlsson summarizes past research, re-formulates the relevant research questions, and proposes information-processing mechanisms that answer those questions. The three theories are based on the principles of redistribution of activation, specialization of practical knowledge, and re-subsumption of declarative information. Ohlsson develops the implications of those mechanisms by scaling their effects with respect to time, complexity, and social interaction. The book ends with a unified theory of non-monotonic cognitive change that captures the abstract properties that the three types of change share.
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action activation apply Artificial Intelligence behavior belief revision belief system brain Chapter cognitive architecture cognitive change cognitive processes cognitive psychology cognitive science complex components concept conflict constraint constraint-based context create creative declarative knowledge domain effects evaluation example explain function Gestalt goal hence heuristic human hypothesis idea impasses individual insight intelligent tutoring systems interactions invention knowledge elements layer learner learning curve learning events learning from error learning mechanisms Lewis structure logical memory mind multiple natural selection Necker Cube negative feedback Newell nonmonotonic change novel novelty observed Ohlsson operating options outcomes particular performance person person’s possible power law practical knowledge predictions principles problem solving produce proposed psychology relevant requires Resubsumption retrieval rule scientists sequence simulation situation skill acquisition solution space specific strategy structure subgoals task environment theory change theory-theory tion transfer triggering conditions truth value tutoring