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accumulation acre Adam Smith agriculture amount annual produce Book capital employed capitalist causes cent chap chapter circulating capital classes commodities consequence consists consumed Corn Laws corn rent cultivation demand depend diminishing returns distribution divided division of labour duce economists edition effect equal Essay exchange expense fact fall farmer fertile fixed capital greater Ibid improvements income J. S. Mill James Mill land landlord less M'Culloch machinery Malthus Malthus's manufactures materials means money rent money wages natural price necessary number of labourers obtained obviously ordinary paid People's physiocrats Political Economy Poor Law population portions of capital price of corn Principles productive labourers profits of stock progress proportion proposition quantity of labour raise rate of profit ratio raw produce remuneration revenue Ricardo rise saving says society subsistence supply supposed theory things tion trade unproductive wage-fund wages and profits wages of labour Wealth of Nations wheat whole produce yield
Page 195 - Rent is that portion of the produce of the earth which is paid to the landlord for the use of the original and indestructible powers of the soil.
Page 45 - The man whose whole life is spent in performing a few simple operations, of which the effects too are, perhaps, always the same, or very nearly the same, has no occasion to exert his understanding, or to exercise his invention in finding out expedients for removing difficulties which never occur. He naturally loses, therefore, the habit of such exertions, and generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human creature to become.
Page 216 - As soon as the land of any country has all become private property, the landlords, like all other men, love to reap where they never sowed, and demand a rent even for its natural produce.
Page 249 - It is not to be understood that the natural price of labour, estimated even in food and necessaries, is absolutely fixed and constant. It varies at different times in the same country, and very materially differs in different countries.* It essentially depends on the habits and customs of the people.
Page 182 - The density of population necessary to enable mankind to obtain, in the greatest degree, all the advantages both of co-operation and of social intercourse, has, in all the most populous countries, been attained. A population may be too crowded, though all be amply supplied with food and raiment. It is not good for man to be kept perforce at all times in the presence of his species.
Page 187 - When the price of any commodity is neither more nor less than what is sufficient to pay the rent of the land, the wages of the labour, and the profits of the stock employed in raising, preparing, and bringing to market, according to their natural rates, the commodity is then sold for what may be called its natural price.
Page 201 - As soon as stock has accumulated in the hands of particular persons, some of them will naturally employ it in setting to work industrious people, whom they will supply with materials and subsistence, in order to make a profit by the sale of their work, or by what their labour adds to the value of the materials.
Page 359 - The whole of the advantages and disadvantages of the different employments of labour and stock must, in the same neighbourhood, be either perfectly equal or continually tending to equality.
Page 271 - By population is here meant the number only of the labouring class, or rather of those who work for hire ; and by capital, only circulating capital, and not even the whole of that, but the part which is expended in the direct purchase of labour.