A Sanskrit Grammar for Beginners: In Devanagari and Roman Letters Throughout

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Longmans,Green and Company, 1870 - Sanskrit language - 300 pages

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An amazing discourse on Sanskrit grammar. Max Muller has done a phenomenal job of simplifying the grammar for the new students of the language. Thanks to Google for making this book available in public domain.

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Page 1 - Thomas, vol. np 42.) To admit, however, the independent invention of a native Indian alphabet is impossible. Alphabets were never invented, in the usual sense of that word. They were formed gradually, and purely phonetic alphabets always point back to earlier, syllabic or ideographic, stages.
Page ix - Pânini and his successors. The grammatical system of Hindu grammarians is so peculiar, that rules which we should group together, are scattered about in different parts of their manuals. We may have the general rule in the last, and the exceptions in the first book, and even then we are by no means certain that exceptions to these exceptions may not occur somewhere else. I shall give but one instance. There is a root 5ff| jâgri, which forms its Aorist by adding ^ч isham, $ îh, ^ it.
Page x - ... single line of Panini. But during those thirty years considerable progress has been made in unravelling the mysteries of the grammatical literature of India. The commentary of Sayana to the Rig-veda has shown us how practically to apply the rules of Panini ; and the translation of the Laghu-Kaumudi by the late Dr. Ballantyne has enabled even beginners to find their way through the labyrinth of native grammar.
Page iii - ... myself to have reached, with regard to correctness, the high standard of Colebrooke's great, though unfinished work. I can only say in self-defence, that it is far more difficult to be correct on every minute point, if one endeavours to re-arrange, as I have done, the materials collected by Pânini, and to adapt them to the grammatical system current in Europe, than if one follows so closely as Colebrooke, the system of native grammarians, and adopts nearly the whole of their technical terminology....
Page 64 - Sanskrit nouns have three genders, Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter ; three numbers, Singular, Dual, and Plural ; and eight cases. Nominative, Accusative, Instrumental, Dative, Ablative, Genitive, Locative. and Vocative.
Page 62 - Sf^'.jan-ah, a man. Suffixes for the formation of nouns are of two kinds : 1. Those by which nouns are derived direct from roots ; Primary Suffixes. 2. Those by which nouns are derived from other nouns ; Secondary Suffixes. The former are called Krit, the latter Taddhita.
Page 23 - ... prayatnah, mode of articulation at the close of the utterance of the sound, which produces the qualities of surd, sonant, aspirated, and unaspirated, as explained in § 58, 59. t Some grammarians differ in their description of the degrees of closing or opening of the organs. Some ascribe to the semivowels...
Page 136 - TRfU f*j»i«t^ krodham inayate, he turns away or dismisses wrath ; a subtle distinction which it is possible to appreciate when stated, but difficult to bring under any general rules. Again, in Sanskrit as well as in Greek, some verbs are middle in certain tenses only, but active or middle in others; eg Atm.
Page 22 - ... changes of final and initial consonants, according to the rules of external Sandhi, we have to explain what is meant by the place and the quality of consonants. 1. The throat, the palate, the roof of the palate, the teeth, the lips, and the nose are called the places or organs of the letters. See § 4. 2. By contact between the tongue and the four places^ — throat, palate, roof, teeth, — the guttural, palatal, lingual, and dental consonants are formed. Labial consonants are formed by contact...
Page 54 - The final ^ h or \ffh, after losing its aspiration, becomes i[g, which is further changed to 4j k. § 114. Nominal or verbal bases ending in consonants and followed by terminations consisting of a single consonant, drop the termination altogether, two consonants not being tolerated at the end of a word ($ 55). The final consonants of the base are then treated like other final consonants.

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