Climate System Modeling
"It is widely recognized that human activities are transforming the global environment. What will be the changes in climate caused by anthropogenic influences and how do these compare with natural variations? To address these questions there is an urgent need to understand and model the global climate system effectively. A central role of climate system models will be to help determine possible impacts and help guide possible future policies. First published in 1992, Climate System Modeling provides a thorough grounding in climate dynamics and the issues involved in predicting climate change. It not only discusses the primary concepts involved but also the mathematical, physical, chemical and biological basis for the component models and the sources of uncertainty, the assumptions made and the approximations introduced. Climate system models go beyond climate models to include all aspects of the climate system: the atmosphere, the ocean, the cryosphere (including snow, sea ice, and glaciers), the biosphere and terrestrial ecosystems, other land surface processes and additional parts of the hydrosphere including rivers, and all the complex interactions between these components. The biogeochemical cycles in both the atmosphere and the ocean are dealt with in detail, potentially allowing the carbon cycle, for instance, to be treated with some veracity. Instead of projecting and specifying what future atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane might be, the goal of these models is to deal comprehensively with the carbon cycle and predict the future evolution of greenhouse gas concentrations, as well as the impact of those changes on the physical climate."--Publisher's description.
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Human components of the climate system
The ocean circulation
absorption aerosols AGCMs albedo atmospheric CO2 atmospheric model average boundary conditions boundary layer calculated canopy carbon dioxide CFCs Chapter chemical circulation models climate change climate models climate system cloud coefficient components computational concentration constant convective coupled model cycle decrease diffusion distribution dynamics Earth ecosystems eddy effects emissions energy balance ENSO equations equilibrium euphotic zone evapotranspiration feedback forcing function glacier global gradient greenhouse gases grid heat flux heat transport horizontal ice sheet important increase infrared integration interactions large-scale latent heat latitude leaf longwave mechanisms methane mixed layer momentum motion numerical nutrient observed ocean circulation ocean model ozone parameterizations parameters photosynthesis physical phytoplankton precipitation prediction pressure primitive equations processes radiative regions salinity scales sea ice sensible heat simulation solution spatial stratosphere stress surface temperature thermal thermocline thermodynamic thermohaline circulation transfer tropical troposphere values variability vegetation velocity vertical warming water vapor wind zonal