A Sanskrit Grammar: Including Both the Classical Language, and the Older Dialects, of Veda and Brahmana

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Brietkopf and Härtel, 1879 - Sanskrit language - 485 pages
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Page xvii - All dates given in Indian literary history are pins set up to be bowled down again.
Page 15 - The lingual mutes are by all the native authorities denned as uttered with the tip of the tongue turned up and drawn back into the dome of the palate (somewhat as the usual English smooth r is pronounced. They are called by the grammarians murdhanya, literally 'head-sounds, capitals, cephalics'; which term is in many European grammars rendered by 'cerebrals...
Page vi - To cast all statements, classifications, and so on, into a form consistent with the teachings of linguistic science. In doing this, it has been necessary to discard a few of the long-used and familiar divisions and terms of Sanskrit grammar — for example, the classification and nomenclature of "special tenses...
Page 366 - ... government" of nouns. But many of the adverbial words indicated above are used with nouns in a way which approximates them to the more fully developed prepositions of other languages. If one and another of such words — as vina, rie — occurs almost solely In prepositional use, this is merely fortuitous, and of no consequence. 1124. Words are used prepositionally along with all the , noun-cases excepting the dative.
Page 209 - In the first; the classes have in common, as their fundamental characteristic, a shift of accent: the tone is now upon the personal ending, now upon the root or the class-sign. Along with this goes a variation in the stem itself, which has a stronger, or fuller, form when the accent rests upon it, and a weaker, or briefer, form when the accent is on the ending. We distinguish these forms as the strong and the weak stem-forms respectively.
Page 426 - ... resolved into equivalent phrases by giving the proper independent form and formal means of connection to each member. But this is not true of the third class, which accordingly is more fundamentally distinct from them than they from each other. 349. III. Secondary...
Page 319 - Gerunds. 989. The so-called gerund is a stereotyped case (doubtless instrumental) of a verbal noun, used generally, but in the later language not exclusively, as logical adjunct to the subject of a clause, denoting an accompanying or (usually) a preceding action to that signified by the verb of the clause . It has thus the virtual value of an indeclinable participle, present or past, qualifying the actor whose action it describes : Thus, for example : frutvai 'va ca 'brutan, 'and hearing (or having...
Page 60 - Q f — : and this, not only if the altering letter stands immediately before the nasal, but at whatever distance from the latter it may be found: unless, indeed, there intervene (a consonant moving the front of the tongue : namely) a palatal (except £T y) , a lingual, or a dental.
Page 27 - IV. Accent. 80. The phenomena of accent are, by the Hindu grammarians of all ages alike, described and treated as depending on a variation of tone or pitch; of any difference of stress involved, they make no account. 81. The primary tones (svara) or accent-pitches are two : a higher (udatta, 'raised'), or acute ; and a lower (anudatta, 'not raised'), or grave.
Page 4 - The forms of the vowel- characters given above are used only when the vowel forms a syllable by itself, or is not combined with a preceding consonant: that is, when it is initial, or preceded by another vowel. In combination with a consonant, other modes of representation are used. B. If more...

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