## How to Solve It: Modern HeuristicsNo pleasure lasts long unless there is variety in it. Publilius Syrus, Moral Sayings We've been very fortunate to receive fantastic feedback from our readers during the last four years, since the first edition of How to Solve It: Modern Heuristics was published in 1999. It's heartening to know that so many people appreciated the book and, even more importantly, were using the book to help them solve their problems. One professor, who published a review of the book, said that his students had given the best course reviews he'd seen in 15 years when using our text. There can be hardly any better praise, except to add that one of the book reviews published in a SIAM journal received the best review award as well. We greatly appreciate your kind words and personal comments that you sent, including the few cases where you found some typographical or other errors. Thank you all for this wonderful support. |

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### Contents

II | 9 |

III | 11 |

V | 16 |

VI | 19 |

VII | 21 |

VIII | 24 |

IX | 26 |

X | 29 |

XCVIII | 264 |

XCIX | 266 |

C | 268 |

CI | 271 |

CII | 277 |

CIV | 282 |

CV | 284 |

CVI | 288 |

XI | 31 |

XII | 35 |

XIV | 36 |

XV | 37 |

XVI | 39 |

XVII | 40 |

XVIII | 43 |

XIX | 45 |

XX | 48 |

XXI | 49 |

XXII | 55 |

XXIII | 58 |

XXIV | 59 |

XXV | 61 |

XXVI | 62 |

XXVII | 64 |

XXVIII | 65 |

XXIX | 66 |

XXX | 69 |

XXXI | 76 |

XXXII | 80 |

XXXIII | 83 |

XXXIV | 87 |

XXXVII | 89 |

XXXVIII | 90 |

XL | 93 |

XLI | 101 |

XLII | 105 |

XLIII | 109 |

XLIV | 111 |

XLV | 115 |

XLVI | 117 |

XLVII | 125 |

XLVIII | 134 |

XLIX | 135 |

L | 139 |

LI | 142 |

LII | 145 |

LIII | 149 |

LIV | 151 |

LV | 157 |

LVI | 161 |

LVII | 165 |

LVIII | 166 |

LIX | 167 |

LX | 168 |

LXII | 169 |

LXIII | 172 |

LXIV | 173 |

LXV | 174 |

LXVI | 176 |

LXVII | 177 |

LXVIII | 179 |

LXIX | 181 |

LXX | 183 |

LXXI | 185 |

LXXII | 189 |

LXXIII | 191 |

LXXIV | 214 |

LXXV | 217 |

LXXVII | 220 |

LXXVIII | 223 |

LXXIX | 225 |

LXXX | 231 |

LXXXI | 232 |

LXXXII | 234 |

LXXXIII | 236 |

LXXXIV | 237 |

LXXXV | 239 |

LXXXVII | 240 |

LXXXIX | 241 |

XC | 242 |

XCI | 243 |

XCIII | 244 |

XCIV | 245 |

XCV | 246 |

XCVI | 249 |

XCVII | 257 |

CVIII | 289 |

CIX | 290 |

CX | 293 |

CXI | 295 |

CXIII | 296 |

CXIV | 298 |

CXV | 303 |

CXVI | 307 |

CXVIII | 317 |

CXIX | 321 |

CXX | 325 |

CXXI | 329 |

CXXII | 335 |

CXXIII | 339 |

CXXIV | 340 |

CXXV | 345 |

CXXVI | 350 |

CXXVII | 352 |

CXXX | 354 |

CXXXII | 356 |

CXXXIII | 358 |

CXXXIV | 360 |

CXXXV | 361 |

CXXXVI | 363 |

CXXXVII | 367 |

CXXXVIII | 368 |

CXL | 369 |

CXLI | 372 |

CXLII | 375 |

CXLIII | 380 |

CXLIV | 382 |

CXLV | 385 |

CXLVI | 387 |

CXLVII | 388 |

CXLVIII | 389 |

CXLIX | 397 |

CL | 399 |

CLI | 400 |

CLII | 403 |

CLIII | 408 |

CLIV | 411 |

CLV | 412 |

CLVI | 418 |

CLVII | 420 |

CLVIII | 424 |

CLIX | 430 |

CLX | 431 |

CLXI | 435 |

CLXII | 440 |

CLXIII | 443 |

CLXIV | 449 |

CLXV | 450 |

CLXVI | 451 |

CLXVII | 452 |

CLXVIII | 458 |

CLXIX | 462 |

CLXX | 465 |

CLXXI | 471 |

CLXXII | 480 |

CLXXIII | 483 |

CLXXIV | 495 |

CLXXVI | 497 |

CLXXVIII | 500 |

CLXXIX | 502 |

CLXXX | 505 |

CLXXXI | 506 |

CLXXXII | 507 |

CLXXXIII | 508 |

CLXXXIV | 511 |

CLXXXV | 512 |

CLXXXVI | 514 |

CLXXXVII | 515 |

CLXXXVIII | 517 |

CLXXXIX | 522 |

525 | |

551 | |

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### Common terms and phrases

adaptive applied approach assigned best solution better branch and bound chapter choose coevolution component consider constraints cost crossover defined determine distance edges evaluation function evolution evolutionary algorithm example feasible region feasible solution figure finite state machine flip fuzzy set Gaussian greedy greedy algorithm heuristic hill-climbing infeasible individuals infeasible solutions initial input iteration length linear matrix membership function method minimize move multiobjective multiobjective optimization mutation neighborhood neural network neuron node nonlinear offspring optimization problems optimum output parameters parents Pareto-optimal particular path payoff penalty permutation players population possible probability problem solving procedure programming puzzle random variable randomly real-world problems representation represents requires rules sample search space selection self-adaptation simple simulated annealing sorting network strategy subtours tabu search techniques there's tion tour variation operators vector weights zero

### Popular passages

Page 2 - The reasonable man adapts himself to the world : the unreasonable one persists in trying to adapt the world to himself. Therefore all progress depends on the unreasonable man.

Page 546 - Adaptive probabilities of crossover and mutation in genetic algorithms," IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Vol.