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The ear and its structure
The middle ear on the right side seen from
14 other sections not shown
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1000 Frequency acoustic action amplitude apical axis basal end basilar membrane Bekesy bone conduction brane changes cochlear fluid cochlear potentials cochlear response combination tones curve decibels displacement distortion drum membrane dynes per sq ear's effects elasticity electrical electrode energy evidence experiments external auditory meatus fenestration footplate function further hair cells hearing Helmholtz high tones impairment impedance incus inner ear intensity Lempert ligament low tones magnitude malleus manubrium maximum measurements ment method microvolts middle ear middle ear cavity middle ear mechanism motion move movements normal observations obtained operation ossicles ossicular chain otosclerosis oval window pathways pattern perforation perilymph phase relation position produced reduced region represent resonance round window round window membrane scala sensitivity sensory shown in Fig sound pressure speed sq cm stapedial stapes stimulation tensor tympani tion transformer transmission traveling wave theories tube tympani muscle tympanic membrane variations vary vibrations Wever