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acetic acid acetyl acetyl chloride action alcohol amines ammonia ammonium anhydride aniline aqueous atoms axes axis base benzene boiling bromide caesium calculated camphoric carbonic oxide cent chemical chloride cold College of Chemistry colouring matter compound containing cooling corresponding crystallised crystals cyanate cyanogen decomposed decomposition density derivatives determined dilute dispersion dissolved distilled ethereal salt ethylamine ethylene ethylic evaporated experiments flame formation formed formula gave grams heated Hofmann hydrocarbon hydrochloric acid hydrogen hydrogen bromide hydrogen chloride indices insoluble investigation iodide isomeric light liquid luteolin melting point method mixture molecule nitrogen observed obtained optic axial angle optical ellipsoid oxygen phenyl phosphine phosphorus potash potassium precipitate prepared prisms quantity radicles ratios readily refractive indices requires researches residue rosaniline rubidium separated silver nitrate sodium soluble solution solvent specific rotation substance sulphate sulphuric acid temperature tion toluidine Trans triethylamine tube values weight whilst yield zinc
Page 593 - Now if we take 20 equivalents of carbon, 11 equivalents of hydrogen, 1 equivalent of nitrogen, and 2 equivalents of oxygen, as the composition of quinine, it will be obvious that naphthalidine, differing only by the elements of two equivalents of water, might pass into the former alkaloid simply by an assumption of water. We cannot, of course, expect to induce the water to enter merely by placing it in contact, but a happy experiment may attain this end by the discovery of an appropriate metamorphic...
Page 628 - The most superficial glance at the present condition of European states shows, that those which linger in the race cannot hope to escape the partial diminution and perhaps the final annihilation of their resources. It is with nations as with nature, which, according to a happy expression of Goethe, knows no pause in ever-increasing movement, development, and production — a curse still cleaving to standing still.
Page 596 - ... than coal-tar naphtha may be used in which the brown substance is soluble and the colouring matter is not soluble. I then free the residue from the naphtha by evaporation, and digest it with methylated spirit, or any other liquid in which the colouring matter is soluble, which dissolves out the new colouring matter. I then separate the methylated spirit from the colouring matter by distillation, at a temperature of 100° C. or 212° F.
Page 663 - ... hydrogen, the power of combining with acids has altogether disappeared. In these hydrogen-compounds the gradation of properties is. indeed even more marked than in their trimethylated and triethylated derivatives. On comparing the terminal points of the series, ammonia and antimonietted hydrogen, we cannot fail to be struck by the dissimilarity of properties which at the first glance appears to limit the analogy of the two compounds to a mere parallelism of composition. In the methylated and...
Page 596 - At this time neither I nor my friends had seen the inside of a chemical works, and whatever knowledge I had was obtained from books. This, however, was not so serious a drawback as at first it might appear to be, as the kind of apparatus required, and the character of the operations to be performed, were so entirely different from any in use that there was but little to copy from.
Page 597 - ... had it not been for this discovery, the coal-tar colour industry could not have been started.
Page 595 - Although the results were not so encouraging as could be wished, I was persuaded of the importance of the colouring matter, and the result was that, in October, I sought an interview with my old master Hofmann and told him of the discovery of this dye, showing him patterns dyed with it, at the same time saying that as I was going to undertake its manufacture, I was sorry that I should have to leave the Royal College of Chemistry. At this he appeared annoyed, and spoke in a very discouraging manner,...
Page 217 - The flames of cyanogen and acetylene are peculiar in respect that the te'mperature of individual decomposing molecules is not dependent entirely on the temperature generated by the combustion which is a function of the tension of dissociation of the oxidised products, carbonic acid and water. We have no means of defining with any accuracy the temperature which the particles of such a flame may reach. We know, however, that the mean temperature of the flames of carbonic oxide and hydrogen lies between...
Page 834 - ... of air comparatively cold. The real temperature of visible flame is perhaps as high as any we are acquainted with. Mr. TENNANT was in the habit of showing an experiment, which demonstrates the intensity of its heat. He used to fuse a small filament of platinum in the flame of a common candle; and it is proved by many facts, that a stream of air may be made to render a metallic body white hot, yet not be itself luminous.