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acrania alimentary canal allantois amniotes amphibia amphioxus ancestors animals anthropoid apes arches arterial ascidian auscultory biogenetic law bladder blastula blood blood-vessels body body-cavity bone brain branchial arches branchial gut catarrhines cavity cells cerebral chief chorda ciliated coelom-pouches comparative anatomy connected corium craniotes cyclostoma dipneusts dorsal duct ectoderm embryo embryology epidermis evolution external fishes fore formation gastraeads gastrula germinal layers gill-arches gill-clefts gills glands gnathostomes heart higher vertebrates hind horny plate human embryo inner invertebrates lateral lower mammals marsupials medullary tube membrane mesoderm metazoa middle monera monotremes muscles muscular nasal nephroduct nerves ontogenetic ontogeny original outer ovum pairs period permanent phylogenetic phylogeny placentals platodes primitive gut primitive kidneys primitive mouth reptiles rudimentary segmental selachii sense-organs sexual organs simple skeleton skin skull spinal stage stem stem-form stem-history structure tissue upper ventral side ventricle vermalia vertebral column vesicle vessel wall Wolffian duct
Page 654 - The embryonic wool-coat usually, in the case of the human embryo, covers the whole body, with the exception of the palms of the hands and soles of the feet These parts are- always bare, as in the case of apes and of most other mammals.
Page 666 - Cyclostomes and fishes up to the apes and man, the brain developes in just the same way in the embryo. The first rudiment of it is always a simple vesicular enlargement of the fore end of the medullary tube. In every case, first three, then five, vesicles develop from this bulb, and the permanent brain with all its complex anatomic structures, of so great a variety in the various classes of Vertebrates, is formed from the five primitive vesicles. When we compare the mature brain of a fish, an amphibian,...
Page 878 - spirit " or " soul " is merely a force or form of energy, inseparably bound up with the material substratum of the body. The thinking force of the mind is- just as much connected with the structural elements of the brain as the motor force of the muscles with their structural elements. Our mental powers are functions of the brain as much as any other force is a function of a material body.
Page 631 - The actual hylobates is nearer to it than the other three existing anthropoids. None of these can be said to be absolutely the most man-like. The gorilla comes next to man in the structure of the hand and foot, the chimpanzee in the chief features of the skull, the orang in brain development, and the gibbon in the formation of the chest.
Page 512 - See also blastostyle. blast'ula (Zool.). A hollow sphere, the wall of which is composed of a single layer of cells, produced as a result of the cleavage of an ovum.
Page 492 - But the further question now arises: "Whence came these first amoebae with which the history of life began at the commencement of the Laurentian epoch?" There is only one answer to this. The earliest unicellular organisms can only have been evolved from the simplest organisms we know, the Monera. These are the simplest living things that we can conceive. Their whole body is nothing but a particle of plasm, a granule of living albuminous matter, discharging of itself all the essential vital functions...
Page 621 - The white-nosed ape pftaurista ).• problem " that has been discussed" of late years with such passionate interest, we come infallibly to the important conclusion, first formulated by Huxley in 1863 : " Whatever systems of organs we take, the comparison of their modifications in the series of apes leads to the same result : that the anatomic differences that separate man from the gorilla and chimpanzee are not as great as, those that separate the gorilla from the lower apes.
Page 877 - ... that they are never really free, but always determined by antecedent factors that can be traced to either heredity or adaptation. We cannot, therefore, admit the conventional distinction between nature and spirit. There is spirit everywhere in nature, and we know of no spirit outside of nature. Hence, also, the common antithesis of natural science and mental or moral science is untenable. Every science, as such, is both natural and mental. That is a firm principle of Monism, which, on its religious...
Page 877 - Mechanical," as opposed to the "Dualistic" or "Teleological," on which most of the ancient, medieval, and modern systems of philosophy are based. The Monistic or Mechanical philosophy affirms that all the phenomena of human life and of the rest of nature...
Page 879 - We know of no matter that is devoid of force, and no forces that are not bound up with matter. When the forces enter into the phenomenon as movements we call them living or active forces ; when they are in a state of rest or equilibrium we call them latent or potential. This applies equally to inorganic and organic bodies. The magnet that attracts iron filings, the powder that explodes, the steam that drives the locomotive, arc living inorganics; they act by living force as much as the sensitive...