Social Democracy and Society: Working Class Radicalism in Düsseldorf, 1890-1920
Social Democracy and Society examines the origins of working-class radicalism in Imperial Germany. The Düsseldorf Social Democratic Party was associated with the left wing of the SPD. It defended theoretical orthodoxy against the onslaughts of revisionism, rejected all cooperation with bourgeois groups, and advocated militant tactics. Professor Nolan argues that the roots of this radicalism extended deep into the Imperial period and sprang from a confrontation between Düsseldorf's working class, which was variously young, highly skilled, migrant, and new to industry, and a political and cultural environment that offered no reformist options. She examines the distinct roles played by peasant workers new to industry, skilled migrant workers, and the indigenous population of Catholic workers. This is the first study to investigate in detail the history of the socialist labor movement in an urban area that was heavily Catholic and to analyze the significance of Catholicism for the political culture of the working class.
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The hostile environment Düsseldorf in the 1890s
Social democracy and political Catholicism
A false start
Ideological unity and organizational disarray
Ambiguous success and radicalization 19031912
Skilled migrants peasant workers and native Catholics
Party building and popular culture
Expansion and optimism
Radicals become revolutionaries 19121920
Things fall apart
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active agitation anti-socialist laws April Arbeiterbewegung argued artisan Arzberger associations August Berlin Berten bourgeois Burgfrieden capitalist Catholic workers Center Party Christian comrades council culture December defended democracy developed dominant dorf Dusseldorf Social Democrats Dusseldorf workers early economic and political election electoral employers Erbert factory February firms German Guenther Roth guild industrial industrialists institutions isolation January January 16 July July 23 labor Landtag Laufenberg leaders leadership Lower Rhine March Marxism mass strike metalworkers migrants militant military municipal National Liberals national party November October organization organizational parliamentarism party and unions party's passim percent police political Catholicism position proletarian protest Prussian radical recruited reform reformist Reichstag revolution revolutionary Rheinmetall Ruhr SADd sector September skilled social democratic movement socialist society StADd structure struggle suffrage tactics tariff trade trade-union traditional unskilled USPD Volkszeitung vote wages Wilhelmian women woodworkers working-class