Water in the Middle East: a geography of peace
Finding "streams in the desert" has never been more urgent for the peoples of the Middle East. Rapid population growth and a rising standard of living are driving water demand inexorably upward, while the natural supply has not increased since Biblical times. Ensuring a fair and adequate distribution of water in the region is vitally important for building a lasting peace among the nations of the Middle East. Addressing water needs from a geographical perspective, the contributors to this book analyze and assess the impact of scarce water resources in the Jordan River basin countries and territories (Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, and Syria) as these long-time antagonists work toward peace. After geographical and historical overviews, the authors envision the future-what the water issues may be when Israel and Syria begin negotiating, the "hydro-security" needs of each nation, and the difficulties of planning for uncertainty. Without proposing any one ideal scheme, they discuss the possibilities for cooperative sharing of water resources, while honestly acknowledging the political constraints that may limit such projects. The final essay speaks to the needs of the one party so rarely represented at the negotiating table-the Jordan River itself.
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A Study of Water
1 The Basin of the River Jordan
2 The National Water Carrier of Israel
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agreement agriculture allocation Annex aquifer Arab Arab-Israeli Armistice Banias border boundary conflict consumption cooperation demand desalination downstream economic environmental Euphrates figure flow future Gaza Geographical Golan Heights groundwater Hasbani headwaters hydrological hydrostrategic irrigation Israel and Jordan Israeli settlements Israeli-Palestinian Jerusalem joint management Joint Water Committee Jordan basin Jordan River Jordan River basin Jordan Valley Kliot Kolars Lake Tiberias Lebanese Litani River Lonergan mcm/year mcm/yr ment meters per annum Middle East military million cubic meters Mountain Aquifer National Water Carrier needs negotiations Palestine Palestinians parties peace treaty percent Plan political pollution population principles projects region riparians Sea of Galilee settlement sources southern Lebanon sovereignty strategic Studies Syria territory theory tion Turkey United Nations upper Jordan urban utilization variability water and sewage water diversion water issues water management water resources water scarcity water supply water-related watershed West Bank Wolf Zionist zone