Ethics in Engineering Practice and Research

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Cambridge University Press, Mar 13, 1998 - Business & Economics - 330 pages
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Engineers encounter difficult ethical problems in their practice and in research. In many ways, these problems are like design problems: they are complex, often ill-defined; resolving them involves an iterative process of analysis and synthesis; and there can be more than one acceptable solution. This book offers a real-world, problem-centered approach to engineering ethics, using a rich collection of open-ended scenarios and case studies to develop skill in recognizing and addressing ethical issues.
 

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Contents

INTRODUCTION TO ETHICAL CONCEPTS
1
Values and Value Judgments
3
Types of Value and Value Judgments
6
Ethics and Ethical Relativism
9
Ought Good Bad Right Wrong
11
A Note on Normative Ethical Theory
12
Moral and Amoral Agents
13
Consequences Harms and Benefits
15
The Hanford Joint Council for Resolving Employee Concerns
166
Employment Guidelines from Engineering and Scientific Societies
168
The Biological Testing of Workers
170
Limits on Acceptable Behavior in the Large Corporation
175
Lockheed Martins Ethics Game
176
Advice from the Texas Instruments Ethics Office
181
Ethical and Legal Considerations
182
Title VII of the US Civil Rights Act of 1964
183

Moral Rights and Moral Rules
18
Moral Obligations Moral Rules and Moral Standing
27
Moral Character and Responsibility
35
Ethical Responsibility and Official Responsibility
37
Trust and Responsibility
44
Privacy Confidentiality Intellectual Property and the Law
46
Intellectual Property
48
Ethics Conscience and the Law
49
ETHICS AS DESIGN DOING JUSTICE TO ETHICAL PROBLEMS
53
Design Problems
55
The Design Analogy
56
Four Moral Lessons from Design Problems
61
The Dynamic Character of Ethical Problems
66
Problems as Experienced by Agents
68
Making and Assessing Ethical Judgments
70
Improving on Excellence
72
THE BASIS AND SCOPE OF PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY
74
How Ethical Standards Vary with Profession
76
Responsibilities Obligations and Moral Rules in Standards of Ethical Behavior
82
Trustworthy Professional Practice
86
Which Mistakes are Culpable?
88
The Autonomy of Professions and Codes of Ethics
93
Does Employee Status Prevent Acting as a Professional?
100
Summary
104
CENTRAL PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF ENGINEERS
108
The Emerging Consensus on the Responsibility for Safety among Engineers
109
Knowledge Foresight and the Responsibility for Safety
111
The Kansas City Hyatt Regency Walkway Collapse and the 1979 America Airlines DC10 Crash
114
Hazards and Risks
118
The Scope and Limits of Engineering Foresight
122
Matching an Engineers Foresight With Opportunities for Influence
128
Summary
129
TWO MODELS OF PROFESSIONAL BEHAVIOR ROGER BOISJOLY AND THE CHALLENGER WILLIAM LEMESSURIERS FIFTYNINE STOR...
133
Background and the Postflight Inspection in January 1985
134
Being Asked to Tone Down the Hypothesis about Cold Temperature
135
Stagnation in the Face of Mounting Evidence about Seal Erosion
136
A Companys Concern about Its Image
139
the Day and Evening Before the Flight
140
Preventing Accidents
144
Note on the Challenger Disaster as a Formative Experience for Many Engineers and for Popular Culture
145
William LeMessurriers Handling of the FiftyNine Story Crisis
146
LeMessuriers Innovative Design for the Citicorp Tower
147
The Discovery of the Change from Welds to Bolts
148
Investigating the Effects of Quartering Winds
149
Wind Tunnel Evidence of the Danger
150
Mobilizing Support
151
Accomplishing the Repair without Causing Panic
152
LeMessuriers Good Name
153
Conclusion Comparison of Boisjoly with LeMessurier
154
WORKPLACE RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
156
Engineers and Managers
157
Organizational Complaint Procedures
160
Government Agencies
163
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission NRC
164
American Forestry Service
165
US Supreme Court Decision on Harris v Forklift
184
From Overcoming Prejudice to Valuing Diversity
185
Organizational Responses to Offensive Behavior and Harassment
187
Ethics in a Global Context
189
Conclusion
190
RESPONSIBILITY FOR RESEARCH INTEGRITY
194
Research Misconduct or Research Integrity?
196
The Search for Adequate Terms
197
What Counts as Research Misconduct?
200
Does Scientific Fraud Describe Research Misconduct?
203
From Hoaxes to Undone Work
205
The Rare Cases of Fraud
207
Robert Millikans Data Handling
208
The Debate and the Silence about Millikans Lie
211
Responding to Changing Moral Standards
213
From Honest Mistakes to Negligence and Recklessness
214
SelfDeception and Research Misconduct
219
Conclusion
221
THE RESPONSIBILITY OF INVESTIGATORS FOR EXPERIMENTAL SUBJECTS
227
Requirements for the Use of Human Subjects in Research
229
Human Subjects in Product Testing
231
Responsibility for Experimental Animals
234
RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE ENVIRONMENT
236
The Rise of Ecology
237
Rachel Carson
238
Key Environmental Legislation
240
The Concept of an Ecosystem
241
Hazards and Risks
242
Illustration from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Case
245
Ecological Thinking and the Question of Who Counts
247
The Case of Timbering and the Northern Spotted Owl
249
The 1995 Supreme Court Decision on Taking of a Threatened Species
251
Acid Rain and Unforeseen Consequences of Human Action
252
Effects of Chlorofluorocarbons on the Ozone Layer
253
Superfund Sites and the Monitoring of Communities for Toxic Contamination
255
Changing Norms in US Corporations
258
Summary and Conclusion
259
FAIR CREDIT IN RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION
263
The History of the Significance of Authorship in Scientific Research
266
From Copying Text to Appropriating Significant Ideas
268
The Criteria for and Responsibilities of Authorship
271
Ethical Guidelines for the Publication of Research
278
Conflict of Interest and Potentially Conflicting Interests
284
Credit Issues Among Faculty PostDocs and Graduate Students
289
The Review of Grant Proposals
291
Conclusion
292
CREDIT AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN ENGINEERING PRACTICE
295
Individual Credit and the Ownership of Innovation
300
Benchmarking and Reverse Engineering
301
Conclusion
304
MAKING A LIFE IN ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE
306
Miguel Barrientos Building a Water Pump for Andean Alpaca Breeders
307
Jim Melcher Witnessing against Waste and Violence
310
Bibliography and References
313
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