Plant Mitochondria: From Genome to Function

Front Cover
David Day, A. Harvey Millar, James Whelan
Springer Science & Business Media, Aug 27, 2004 - Science - 325 pages

Mitochondria in plants, as in other eukaryotes, play an essential role in the cell as the major producers of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. However, mitochondria also play crucial roles in many other aspects of plant development and performance, and possess an array of unique properties which allow them to interact with the specialized features of plant cell metabolism. The two main themes running through the book are the interconnection between gene regulation and protein function, and the integration of mitochondria with other components of plant cells.

The book begins with an overview of the dynamics of mitochondrial structure, morphology and inheritance. It then discusses the biogenesis of mitochondria, the regulation of gene expression, the mitochondrial genome and its interaction with the nucleus, and the targeting of proteins to the organelle. This is followed by a discussion of the contributions that mutations, involving mitochondrial proteins, have made to our understanding of the way the organelle interacts with the rest of the plant cell, and the new field of proteomics and the discovery of new functions. Also covered are the pathways of electron transport, with special attention to the non-phosphorylating bypasses, metabolite transport, and specialized mitochondrial metabolism.

In the end, the impact of oxidative stress on mitochondria and the defense mechanisms, that are employed to allow survival, are discussed. This book is for the use of advanced undergraduates, graduates, postgraduates, and beginning researchers in the areas of molecular and cellular biology, integrative biology, biochemistry, bioenergetics, proteomics and plant and agricultural sciences.

 

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a very nice guide to all teaching aspects and to learn

Contents

Mitochondrial Structure and Function in Plants
1
II Organic Acid Oxidation
2
III Regulation of Organic Acid Oxidation in Plant Mitochondria
4
V Mitochondria Involvement in Ammonia Assimilation and Amino Acid Synthesis
5
VI Plant Mitochondrial Electron Transport
6
VII Nonphosphorylating Bypasses of the Electron Transport Chain in Plants
7
VIII Plant Mitochondrial ATP Synthesis
8
IX Regulation of Mitochondrial Respiration in Plants
9
VI mtDNA Mutations and Mitochondrial Genome Evolution
133
VIII Conclusions
136
Proteome Analyses for Characterization of Plant Mitochondria
143
Summary
144
II Analyses of Plant Mitochondrial Proteins by 2D Gel Electrophoresis 19802001
145
III Analyses of Arabidopsis Mitochondria by Proteomics since 2001
149
IV Proteome Analyses of Mitochondria from Other Plants
157
V Future Outlook
158

X Interactions Between Mitochondria and Other Cellular Compartments
10
Acknowledgments
11
Mitochondria Morphology Dynamics and Inheritance
13
II Mitochondrial Evolution
14
IV Mitochondrial Form and Movement
15
V Mitochondrial Fission and Fusion
17
VI Mitochondrial Inheritance and Distribution
22
VII Plant Specific Proteins Playing a Role in Mitochondrial Dynamics
25
IX Conclusions
26
Acknowledgments
27
Protein Targeting and Import
31
Abbreviations
32
III The Targeting SignalStick or Compass?
37
IV The Plant Mitochondrial TransloconComposition and Structure
41
V Conclusions and Perspectives
48
Gene Expression in Higher Plant Mitochondria
55
Summary
56
II Transcription of Plant Mitochondrial Genes
57
III PostTranscriptional Processing of Plant Mitochondrial RNAs
61
IV Translation in Plant Mitochondria
72
V Modulation of Mitochondrial Gene Expression during Development
73
VI Conclusions
74
MitochondriaNucleus Interactions Evidence for Mitochondrial Retrograde Communication in Plant Cells
83
Abbreviations
84
III Retrograde Signaling in Response to Mitochondrial Dysfunction
87
IV Potential Retrograde Signaling During Development
90
VI Evidence for Multiple Retrograde Signaling Pathways in Plants
93
VIII Potential Components of Retrograde Signaling Pathways
94
IX Concluding Remarks
100
Plant Mitochondrial Genome Evolution and Gene Transfer to the Nucleus
107
Abbreviations
108
II Gene Transfer from the Mitochondrion to the Nucleus
110
III Protein Targeting Following Gene Relocation
113
Acknowledgments
117
Mitochondrial Mutations in Plants
121
Summary
122
II Plant Mitochondrial Genomes
124
III Chimeric Genes Associated with CMS
126
Cytoplasmic Reversions of CMS to Fertility
128
Abnormal Growth Mutants
129
Alternative Mitochondrial Electron Transport Proteins in Higher Plants
163
Summary
164
Abbreviations
165
II Alternative NADPH Dehydrogenases
167
III Alternative Oxidase
175
IV Conclusions and Perspectives
214
Acknowledgments
215
Regulation of Electron Transport in the Respiratory Chain of Plant Mitochondria
229
Abbreviations
230
II The Phosphorylating Electron Flow Pathway
232
III The NonPhosphorylating Electron Flow Pathways
234
IV Proton Electrochemical Gradient Consumption
236
V Functional Connection Between Alternative Oxidase and Uncoupling Protein
239
VI Conclusions and Perspectives
241
Acknowledgments
242
Plant Mitochondrial Carriers
245
II General Features of the Members of the Mitochondrial Carrier Family
247
III The Mitochondrial Carriers of NonPlant Systems
248
IV Plant Mitochondrial Carriers
249
V Strategies to Identify the Function of New Plant Mitochondrial Carriers
265
VI Conclusions
267
The Uniqueness of Tetrahydrofolate Synthesis and OneCarbon Metabolism in Plants
275
II Genes and Enzymes Involved in Tetrahydrofolate Biosynthesis
277
III The Origin and Interconversion of OneCarbon Units
282
IV Concluding Remarks
286
References
287
Photorespiration Photosynthesis in the Mitochondria
291
Abbreviations
292
III The Photorespiratory C2 Cycle
293
IV Control of Photorespiration
299
V Cellular Consequences of Photorespiration
300
References
302
Roles for Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidants in Plant Mitochondria
305
Abbreviations
306
II The Production of Reactive Oxygen Species by Plant Mitochondria
307
III Oxidants and Antioxidants
309
V The Consequences of Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress
313
VI Conclusions
315
Index
319
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