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accent according Anusvāra aorist applies aspiration Ātmanepada bases ending becomes beginning benedictive called Caus causes changed compounds conjugated consonants declined dental derived desiderative drop dropt DUAL exceptions feminine final followed give given grammar Guņa Hence initial inserted Instr intensive intermediate lengthen letters liable likewise lingual marked MASC means nasal native grammarians neut NEUTER nouns optional originally Pada palatal Pān Parasmaipada participle Pass passive pers plur PLURAL preceded prepositions pronounced radical reduplicated reduplicated perfect remains require roots roots ending rules Sandhi Sanskrit short sibilants sing SINGULAR sonant sound stand suffixes svarita syllable takes place tenses terminations terminations beginning treated udįtta unchanged Verbal bases verbs VIII Visarga vowel written
Page 3 - Indian alphabet can be proved with scientific precision, the second Indian alphabet, that which is found in the inscription of Girnar, and which is the real source of all other Indian alphabets, as well as of those of Tibet and Burmah, has not as yet been traced back in a satisfactory manner to any Semitic prototype. (Prinsep's Indian Antiquities by Thomas, vol. np 42.) To admit, however, the independent invention of a native Indian alphabet is impossible. Alphabets were never invented, in the usual...
Page 235 - Avyayībhāva, is formed by joining an indeclinable particle with another word. The resulting compound, in which the indeclinable particle always forms the first element, is again indeclinable, and generally ends, like adverbs, in the ordinary terminations of the nom.
Page 138 - P=i«i<4n krodham vinayate, he turns away or dismisses wrath ; a subtle distinction which it is possible to appreciate when stated, but difficult to bring under any general rules. Again, in Sanskrit as well as in Greek, some verbs are middle in certain tenses only, but active or middle in others; eg Atm.
Page 10 - The palatal letters ^ ch and *lj have the sound of ch in 'church* and ofj in 'join.' 5. The lingual letters are said to be pronounced by bringing the lower surface of the tongue against the roof of the palate. As a matter of fact the ordinary pronunciation of t, d, n in English is what Hindus would call lingual, and it is essential to distinguish the Sanskrit dentals by bringing the tip of the tongue against the very edge of the upper front-teeth. In transcribing English words the natives naturally...
Page ix - ... than it possessed before ; but I do by no means pretend to have arrived on all points at a clear and definite view of the meaning of Panini and his successors. The grammatical system of Hindu grammarians is so peculiar, that rules which we should group together, are scattered about in different parts of their manuals. We may have the general rule in the last, and the exceptions in the first book, and even then we are by no means certain that exceptions to these exceptions may not occur somewhere...
Page 138 - These distinctions, however, rest in many cases, in Sanskrit as well as in Greek, on peculiar conceptions which it is difficult to analyse or to realize ; and in Sanskrit as well as in Greek, the right use of the active and middle voices is best learnt by practice. Thus...
Page x - has enabled even beginners to find their way through the labyrinth of native grammar," has been for many years out of print, and is continually enquired for by those who wish to obtain a well-grounded knowledge of a language, the students of which in Europe alone may be counted no longer by tens, but by hundreds. For the publication of this edition such students are indebted to the enlightened...
Page x - Guna, Vriddhi, Guna, Vriddhi, prohibition, option, again Vriddhi and then exception, these, with the change of ri into a semivowel in the first instance, are the nine results.
Page 54 - The final ^ k or \ffh, after losing its aspiration, becomes n^, which is further changed to eR k. § 114. Nominal or verbal bases ending in consonants and followed by terminations consisting of a single consonant, drop the termination altogether, two consonants not being tolerated at the end of a word ($ 55). The final consonants of the base are then treated like other final consonants.