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accelerated anode aperture astigmatism axial axis BIBLIOGRAPHY Chapter C.R. tubes calculated cardinal points centre chromatic error coil constant converging crossover current density curvature curves cylinder cylinder lens decreases depends derived determined diameter direction distance distortion diverging E.S. lenses effect electron beam electron lens electron microscope electron optics electron velocity electrostatic emitting energy equipotentials experimental Faraday cage field strength focal length focal properties focus focussed spot formula function gabor gives glaser gradient height image plane immersion objective increase initial integral jacob lens field limit magnetic field magnetic lenses magnification maloff and epstein method minimum modulator motion object and image paraxial particle path position principal planes radial radius ramberg ray tracing refractive index region resolving power screen shows space charge spherical aberration spherical error surface symmetrical thin lens trajectory equation variation varies vector potential voltage ratio volts wallraff zero