The Useful Metals and Their Alloys, Including Mining Ventilation, Mining Jurisprudence, and Metallurgic Chemistry Employed in the Conversion of Iron, Copper, Tin, Zinc, Antimony and Lead Ores; with Their Applications to the Industrial Arts
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The Useful Metals and Their Alloys: Including Mining Ventilation, Mining ...
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alloy amount antimony application arsenic beam bismuth blast blast-furnace bottom brittle calamine calcination carbonic acid cast cast-iron cent charcoal charge chemical coal coke colour combination combustion considerable consists construction contain converted cooling crucible crystals diameter effect employed feet fluid flux forging fracture fuel fused fusible fusion galena gases hammer hearth heat hundredweight hydrogen inches ingots lime litharge malleable manganese manufacture mass material matter melted metal metallurgy mineral mines mixed mixture mould nearly nitric acid obtained operation ornamental oxide oxide of copper oxide of lead oxide of zinc oxygen peroxide placed plates portion principle produced proportion pyrites reduced removed reverberatory furnace roasting rollers sand scoria separate shaft silicates silver slag small quantity smelting soda specific gravity steel strength substances sufficient sulphate sulphide sulphuret sulphuric acid surface temperature thick tion tons tube tuyere ventilation vessel weight wrought-iron
Page 270 - ... a multiplicity of small furnaces. While the manufacturer has shown himself fully alive to these advantages, he has still been under the necessity of leaving the succeeding operations to be carried out on a scale wholly at variance with the principles he has found so advantageous in the smelting department. It is true that hitherto no better method was known than the puddling process, in which from...
Page 270 - ... times its original length. One of the most important facts connected with the new system of manufacturing malleable iron is that all the iron so produced will be of that quality known as charcoal iron; not that any charcoal is used in its manufacture, but because the whole of the processes following the smelting of it are conducted entirely without contact with, or the use of, any mineral fuel; the iron resulting therefrom will in consequence be perfectly...
Page 474 - It may be said that the pressure or adhesion of the two surfaces of the plates would add to the strength : but this is not found to be the case, to any great extent, as in almost every instance the experiments indicate the resistance to be in the ratio of their sectional area, or nearly so.
Page 360 - ... but I do not claim the use of any such mixture of cast and malleable iron, or malleable iron and carbonaceous matter, as any part of my invention, but only the use of carburet of manganese, in any process for the conversion of iron into cast-steel...
Page 476 - Single-riveted joint . 1000 1021 791 From the above it will be seen that the single-riveted joints have lost one-fifth of the actual strength of the plates, whilst the doubleriveted have retained their resisting powers unimpaired. These are important and convincing proofs of the superior value of the double joint ; and in all cases where strength is required, this description of joint should invariably be used.
Page 265 - ... which always accompanies the boil. The rapid union of carbon and oxygen which thus takes place adds still further to the temperature of the metal, while the diminished quantity of carbon present allows a part of the oxygen to combine with the iron, which undergoes combustion and is converted into an oxide. At the excessive temperature that the metal has now acquired, the oxide as soon as formed undergoes fusion, and forms a powerful solvent of those earthy bases that are associated with the iron...
Page 499 - ... it. In this plan the mould for the face of every casting is formed from the original metal pattern, and the pattern itself is firmly and permanently secured in the plaster bed, so that however thin and delicate it may be, there is no risk of injury to the pattern in moulding any number of castings : as many as 3000 have been cast without injury from a slender ornamental pattern. In forming the...
Page 365 - ... of sparry iron ore) from the impurities with which it was mixed, and also bring down with it a portion of the iron contained in the sparry iron ore, thereby increasing the yield of cast steel by about 6 per cent.
Page 264 - The direct statement is made, that ' the air, dividing into globules, and diffusing itself among the particles of fluid iron, and thus coming in contact at numerous points with the carbon contained in the crude iron, and producing thereby a vivid combustion,' and the same action is implied in other parts of Mr.
Page 476 - ... by machine is considerable, we may fairly assume the following relative strengths as the value of plates with their riveted joints : — Taking the strength of the plate at 100 The strength of the double-riveted joint would then be . . 70 And the strength of the single-riveted joint...