Proceedings of the United States National Museum

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Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890 - Amphibians - 14 pages
 

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Page ii - The Bulletins of the National Museum, the publication of which was commenced in 1875, consist of elaborate papers based upon the collections of the Museum, reports of expeditions, etc., while the Proceedings facilitate the prompt publication of freshly-acquired facts relating to biology, anthropology, and geology, descriptions of restricted groups of animals and plants, the discussion of particular questions relative to the synonymy of species, and the diaries of minor expeditions.
Page 225 - ... gradually spread over great areas of the oceanic floor. In accordance with these not unreasonable assumptions we should expect to find among the newer comers at least some characters which were assumed under the stress of the struggle for existence in the shallows, and which, through specific inertia, have not become wholly obsolete in the new environment. We should also expect to find a certain proportion of Archibenthal species in any given area, identical with or closely related to the analogous...
Page ii - ... and a small edition of each signature is distributed to libraries promptly after its publication. Full lists of the publications of the Museum may be found in the current catalogues of the publications of the Smithsonian Institution. Papers intended for publication in the Proceedings and Bulletins of the National Museum are referred to the Committee on Publications, consisting of the folio wing 'members: TH Bean, A.
Page 225 - ... absence of light. Sunlight, when present, seems to have a stimulating effect in developing colors as is shown by the greater brightness of tropical litoral shells whatever their colors. It operates indirectly by promoting the development of color in algae which are fed upon by phytophagous mollusks, and affect the .coloration of the latter directly through the assimilation of the coloring matter of the food, mechanically. Indirectly, through the influence of protective mimicry, the coloration...
Page 218 - ... is rather a matter of temperature than of mere depth. But the temperature itself is somewhat dependent on the depth, the influence of the great warm currents rarely extending below seven or eight hundred fathoms and this depth corresponds roughly to a temperature of about forty degrees Fahrenheit. Below this it diminishes as the depth increases, at the rate of about one-tenth of a degree to one hundred fathoms until the freezing point is reached, though there is no reason to suppose that the...
Page 84 - ... was entirely deprived of its power of flight, but it is evident both from the measurements of the skins as well as of those of the bones, given below, that the wings of the cormorant were disproportionately small. Steller speaks of its great bulk of body and its weight, which varied between 12 and 14 pounds, so that one single bird was sufficient for three starving men of the shipwrecked crew.
Page 222 - ... ejectamenta of a single fish of moderate size in one day would far exceed the accumulations of many earthworms for much longer time. Now, in examining critically large quantities of material dredged from the bottom I have found that from certain areas almost entirely composed of these ejectamenta. In the interstices some small creatures hide but the tooth marks of the fish were upon nearly every fragment. As for a pint of fragments of a given species, this bottom-stuff would rarely contain half...
Page 227 - ... shell by adding to its thickness. In the abyssal forms, for reasons already explained, this mode is not practicable and consequently we have the one without the other. The operculum is generally horny in abyssal mollusks, frequently disproportionately small, compared with that of congeneric literal species, and in a remarkably large number of cases is absent altogether. The genus most abundantly represented of all is Mangilia, which is entirely without...
Page 614 - The mud was easily stirred so that nothing couid be seen. These creatures, fish and crayfish, are only to be secured by patient waiting and skilful management. The people at the cave say the fish never bite, and cannot be taken with hook and line. The crayfish were all found near the entrance, where there is considerable light. Following the stream back to a dark recess, reached by crawling on the slippery rocks, the light of the lantern revealed a school of little, white fishes such as I secured...
Page 220 - If we recall that the average pressure in steam boilers is probably much less than one hundred pounds to the square inch it may help toward an appreciation of the abyssal conditions. The inevitable conclusion is, therefore, that all the animals living under these conditions must have their tissues so constituted as to permit the free permeation of the water through every part in order that the pressure may be equalized. How this is possible without putting an end to all organic functions is perhaps...

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