Conservation of marine archaeological objects
Over the past twenty years there has been a significant increase in underwater activities such as scuba diving which, coupled with the adventure andromance always associated with shipwrecks, has led to rapid developments in the discovery and excavation of shipwrecked material. These shipwrecks are invaluable archaeological 'time capsules', which in themajoriety of cases have come to an equilibrium with their environment. As soon as artefacts on the wreck site are moved, this equilibrium is disturbed, and the artefacts may commence to deteriorate, sometimes in a rapid and devastating fashion. In fact excavation without having conservation facilities available is vandalism--the artefacts are much safer being left on the sea bed. Such famous shipwrecks as the Mary Rose (1545), the Wasa (1628) and the Batabia (1629) have not only brought the world's attention to these unique finds, but have also produced tremendous conservation problems. The treatment of a 30 metre waterlogged wooden hull or large cast iron cannon is still causing headaches to conservators.
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The underwater environment
Deterioration of organic materials other than wood
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acetone acid adhesive alkaline aluminium anodic archaeological artefacts bacteria bone bronze carbonate cast iron cathodic cause cell wall cellulose ceramic chemical chloride cleaning collagen concentration concretion conservation consolidation contain copper copper alloys corrosion products cross-linkage damage degradation deterioration diffusion dimensional change dissolved dried electrolysis environment excavation fibres fibrils Figure freeze drying glass graphitized hemicellulose HMS Association humidity hydrogen hygroscopicity immersion impregnation increase ions iron artefacts iron corrosion keratin leather lignin marine burial marine iron material ment metal method moisture molecules NaOH objects occur organic oxidation oxygen Parks Canada Plate polyethylene glycol polymers polyvinyl acetate Pourbaix diagram present protein reaction reducing removed residual resin salts seabed seawater Section sediment shipwrecks shrinkage silver sodium soluble solvent species stains storage structure sulphide surface swelling tank temperature textile timbers tion tissue tracheids treated treatment wash solution waterlogged wood weight wreck wrought iron zone
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Lab-on-a-chip: Miniaturized Systems for (bio)chemical Analysis and Synthesis
Limited preview - 2003