The principles and practice of surveying

Front Cover
Wiley, 1906 - Surveying
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Contents

Temperature
13
Effect of Wearing on Length of the Chain
14
Problems
15
Measurement of Direction 24 The Surveyors Compass
16
The Pocket Compass
18
Ait Page 27 The Earths Magnetism Dip of the Needle
19
Variations in Declination
20
Isogonic Chart
25
To Straighten the CompassNeedle
26
To Center the Pivotpoint
27
To Remagnetize the Needle
28
Detecting Local Attractions of the Needle
29
Calculating Angles from Bearings
30
Measurement of Angles the transit 42 General Description of the Transit
31
The Telescope
34
The Objective
35
CrossHairs
36
Eyepiece
37
Field of View
38
Verniers Used on Transits
39
Eccentricity
44
use of the transit 56 Setting up the Transit
45
To Measure a Horizontal Angle
47
To Measure an Angle by Repetition
48
To Lay Off an Angle by Repetition
50
Running a Straight Line One Point Visible from the Other
51
Prolonging a Straight Line
52
Signals
53
To Measure a Vertical Angle
54
Precautions in the Use of the Transit
55
adjustments of the transit 70 Adjustment of the Plate Bubbles
56
Adjustment of the CrossHairs
57
Art Page 73 Adjustment of the Standards
59
Adjustment of the Vernier of the Vertical Circle
60
Shop Adjustments
61
Common Sources of Error in Transit Work
62
the solar attachment 83 Description of Solar Attachment
65
Observation on the Sun for Meridian with Solar Attachment
66
Computation of Declination Settings
68
Comstocks Method of Finding the Refraction
69
Mistakes in Using the Solar Attachment
70
Adjustment of Telescope Bubble
71
Measurement of Differences of Elevation 93 Level Surface
72
Angular Value of One Division of the Level Tube
73
The Dumpy Level
74
Comparison of Wye and Dumpy Levels
77
leveling rods 102 Boston Rod
78
New York Rod
80
Philadelphia Rod
81
Precise Level Rod
82
Attachments to the Rod for Plumbing
83
To Take a RodReading
84
Signals
85
The Proper Length of Sight
87
Precautions in Level Work
88
Adjustment of the Level Tube
89
Adjustment of the Wyes
90
ADJUSTMENTS OF THE DUMPY LEVEL 126 Adjustment of the CrossHairs
91
Adjustment of the Locke Hand Level
93
Common Sources of Error in Leveling
94
PART II
97
Land Surveying 132 Surveying for Area
99
survey of field with transit and tape 134 Survey of a Field by a Traverse
101
Irregular Curved Boundaries
105
Survey of a Field with a Tape only
106
Method of Procedure
107
Measurement of the Angles of the Traverse
108
Checking the Fieldwork
109
Organization of Transit Party m
111
Notekeeping
112
Survey of a Field for a Deed
114
Deed Description
115
Judicial Functions of the Surveyor
116
Rerunning Old Surveys from a Deed
118
How to Look up a Recorded Deed
120
the united states system of surveying the public lands 154 The System
121
Initial Points
124
Principal Meridian
126
Township Exteriors
127
Method of Subdividing
128
Meandering
134
Summary of Objects and Data Intersected by the Line or in Its Vicinity to be Noted
139
Prescribed Limits for Closings and Lengths of Lines
141
Field Notes
142
Marking the Corners
147
To Establish a Parallel of Latitude
148
Tangent Method
150
Convergence of the Meridians
154
Traverse Lines Location of Buildings Miscellaneous Surveying Problems traverse lines 171 Traverses which do not Form Closed Figures
156
Checking by CutOff Lines
157
Checking by Angles to a Distant Object
158
location of buildings from transit line 176 Methods of Locating Buildings
159
General Suggestions r6o 180 Typical Cases
160
Plotting
161
Art Page 183 Building Located Entirely by Direct Ties
162
Plotting
163
Plotting
164
Buildings Located from Other Buildings
165
Buildings of Irregular Shape
166
Location of Buildings by Angles and Distances
167
miscellaneous surveying problems 191 Random Line
169
Obstacles on Line
170
Short Transit Sights
172
Measuring Around a Small Obstacle
173
Equilateral Triangle Method
174
Intersecting Transit Lines
175
By Tangent Offset Method
176
By Oblique Triangle Method
177
To Obtain the Distance Between Two Inaccessible Points by Observation from Two Accessible Points
178
To Obtain the Inaccessible Distance Between Two Accessible Points by Observation on Two Inaccessible Points of Known Distance Apart
179
observations for meridian 206 To Establish a True Meridian Line by Observation on Polaris with the Transit
180
Observation for Meridian on Polaris at Elongation
182
Observation for Meridian on Polaris at Culmination
185
To Find the Standard Time of Culmination and Elongation
186
Meridian Observations on Polaris with the Compass
187
a11 Meridian Observation on Polaris at any Time with the Transit
188
Solar Observations
190
Observation for Meridian by a Single Altitude of the Sun
193
Observation for Meridian by Means of the Solar Attachment
195
Art Page 216 By the Altitude of Polaris at Upper or Lower Culmination
196
Problems
197
Leveling 218 Definitions
198
Double Rodded Lines
201
Bench Marks and Turning Points
202
Leveling for Profile
203
CrossSectioning
206
CrossSectioning for Earthwork
207
Setting Slope Stakes
208
Earthwork Notes for Road CrossSections
209
CrossSections for BorrowPits
210
Shooting in a Grade Line
211
The Staff Gauge
212
Leveling Across a River
213
Problems
215
City Surveying 240 Instruments Used
216
Transits and Levels
217
City Standard
218
Art Page 256 Curved Layouts
232
Elements of a Circular Curve
233
Staking Out Circular Curves
234
Keeping the Notes
237
When the Entire Curve Cannot be Laid Out from One End
238
Second Method
239
Both Street Lines Curved
240
Staking Out Street Grades
241
Vertical Curves
242
CrossSection of Street
243
Gutters at Same Elevation
244
Irregular Shaped Blocks
247
Staking out City Lots
248
Staking Out Curb Lines and Grades
249
Staking Out Sewers
251
Revising Street Lines
252
Setting BatterBoards for a Building
253
City Plans and Records
255
Triangulation Scheme
256
Measurement of BaseLine
261
Adjustment of the Angles
262
Secondary and Tertiary Triangulation
263
Topographical Surveying 293 Triangulation for Control
264
Location of Points from the Transit Line
265
Characteristics of Contours
268
Relation Between Contour Map and Profile
270
Relation Between Contour Map and Side Elevation or Pro jection
271
Drainage Areas
273
Sketching Contours from Known Elevations
276
Locating Contours
277
Locating Contours by CrossSections
278
Location of Streams and Shore Lines
280
Intersection of Curved Surface with Surface of Ground
281
Intersection of Side Slopes of Road with Surface of Ground
283
Mining Surveying 313 General Remarks
285
mining instruments 315 Mining Transits
287
Adjustment of Top Telescope
290
Combined Solar Attachment and Top Telescope
292
Compasses used in Mines
293
underground surveying 326 Transferring a Meridian into a Mine by use of the Transit
294
Plumbing the Meridian down a Shaft
296
Transferring a Meridian into a Mine when there are Two Shafts
298
Underground Traverses
299
Establishing Station Points
300
Notes of a Mine Traverse
305
Underground Leveling
306
Laying out Mining Work
307
Vertical Angle Correction for Eccentricity of the Top Telescope
308
To Establish a Boundary Line of the Claim Underground
309
Hydraulic Surveying for Mines
310
Testing for Ore by Electric Currents
311
Mine Boundaries Appropriations Under United States Laws
312
Surveying for Patent
314
The Surveying of Boreholes
315
Staking out the Probable Apex of a Vein
316
Problems
318
PART III
321
General Principles Miscellaneous Prob lems Earthwork Computations 349 General Remarks
323
Logarithmic or Natural Functions
327
Short Cuts
329
Arrangement of Computations
330
Thacher Slide Rule
333
Trapezoidal Rule
334
Straightening Crooked Boundary Lines
336
Area of a Quadrilateral by Triangles
337
Area of a Curved Corner Lot 33S 369 Rough Checks on Areas
339
Deflection Angles and Chords for a Circular Curve
341
Computations of Observations
342
Volume of Prismoid
344
Estimates for Grading
345
Rough Estimates
349
Problems
350
Akt Page 383 Computation of Area
352
Computation of Area of Compass Survey
356
Balancing a Chain and Compass Traverse
358
Double Parallel Distance
359
Error of Closure
360
Fractional Areas
365
Supplying Missing Data
366
Detecting Mistakes
368
40JI To Cut Off from a Traverse a Given Area by a Straight Line starting from a Known Point on the Traverse
369
To Find the Area Cut Off from a Traverse by a Line run ning in a Given Direction from a Given Point in the Trav erse
370
calculations relating to traverses which do not close 406 To Calculate the Total Distance between End Points
371
Computation of Azimuths when Checking Angles to a Dis tant Object
372
Coordinates
373
To Determine the Area of a Field by Rectangular Co ordinates
374
Problems
376
PART IV
379
Drafting Instruments and Material ENG1NEER1NG DRAFT1NG 1NSTRUMENTS 415 Straight Edge
381
Engineers Scale
382
FullCircle Protractor
384
Ami Pagi 423 Pantograph
385
Parallel Ruler
386
Proportional Dividers
387
drawing papers 433 Drawing Paper for Plans
388
Tracing Paper and Tracing Cloth
389
CrossSection and Profile Papers
390
Process Papers BluePrints
391
Vandyke Solar Paper
393
Electrical Printing Frames
395
Laying Out a Plan
397
methods of plotting traverses 446 Plotting by Protractor and Scale
398
Protractor and TSquare
400
Plotting by Rectangular Coordinates
401
Checks
405
Checks
407
Plotting by Chords
408
Use of the Sine
409
method of plotting details 460 Buildings Fences Streams Etc
410
CrossSections
411
Checks
413
Finishing and Filing Drawings 468 WnAT Should Appear on a Drawing
415
Physical Features
416
Art Page 473 Lettering
422
Titles
423
Notes
426
Border Lines
427
Scales
428
Maps of Large Extent
429
Inking in a Profile
430
Filing Drawings
431
Indexing Drawings
432
Indexing Notes
433
TABLES
435
Logarithms of Numbers
437
Logarithmic Sines and Cosines
455
Logarithmic Tangents and Cotangents
470
Natural Sines and Cosines
485
Natural Tangents and Cotangents
494
Radius i
506
Mean Refractions in Declination
507
Trigonometric and Miscellaneous Formulas
511
Circular Curve Formulas
513
Linear Measure
514
Constants
515
Greek Alphabet
516
Copyright

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 121 - The public lands shall be divided by north and south lines run according to the true meridian, and by others crossing them at right angles, so as to form townships of six miles square...
Page 139 - The following technical and topographic features are to be carefully observed and recorded in the field during the progress of public land surveys : "1. The precise course and length of every line run, noting all necessary offsets therefrom, with the reason for making them, and method employed. "2. The kind and diameter of all bearing trees...
Page 59 - To make the line of collimation perpendicular to the horizontal axis of the instrument; and (6) to make the horizontal axis of the telescope perpendicular to the vertical axis of the instrument.
Page 138 - They are to state and describe particularly the meander corner from which they commenced, each one with which they close, and are to exhibit the meanders of each fractional section separately; following, and composing a part of such notes, will be given a description of the land, timber, depth of inundation to which the bottom is subject, and the banks, current, and bottom of the stream or body of water you are meandering.
Page 140 - The variation of the needle must be noted at all points or places on the lines where there is found any material change of variation, and the position of such points must be perfectly identified in the notes. 20. Besides the ordinary notes taken on line (and which must always be written down on the...
Page 122 - The establishment of a principal meridian conforming to the true meridian, and, at right angles to it, a base.line conforming to a parallel of latitude. Second. The establishment of standard parallels conforming to parallels of latitude, initiated from the principal meridian at intervals of 24 miles and extended east and west of the same. Third. The establishment of guide meridians conforming to true meridians, initiated upon the...
Page 59 - The essential condition is that the vertical axis shall not alter its position. 73. ADJUSTMENT OF THE STANDARDS. — To make the Horizontal Axis of the Telescope Perpendicular to the Vertical Axis of the Instrument. (See Fig. 32.) Set up the transit and sight the vertical cross-hair on a high point A, such as the top of a church steeple. Lower the telescope and set a point B in line, on the same level as the telescope. Reverse the telescope, turn the instrument about its vertical axis, and sight...
Page 130 - Then, from the last established section corner, ie, the corner of sections 1, 2, 11, and 12, the line between sections 1 and 2 will be projected northward, on a random line, parallel to the east boundary of the township, setting a post for temporary quarter-section corner at 40.00 chains, to its intersection with the north boundary of the township.
Page 139 - ... the foot of all remarkable hills and ridges, with their courses, and estimated height in feet, above the level land of the surrounding country, or above the bottom lands, ravines, or waters near which they are situated.
Page 126 - ; and the same will be run, in all respects, like the regular standard parallels. 159. " Guide Meridians. — Guide meridians shall be extended north from the base line, or standard parallels, at intervals of 24 miles east and west from the principal meridian, in the manner prescribed for running the principal meridian, and...

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