Transitions to Capitalism in Early Modern Europe
Between the end of the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution, the long-established structures and practices of European agriculture and industry were slowly, disparately, but profoundly transformed. Transitions to Capitalism in Early Modern Europe, first published in 1997, narrates and analyzes the diverse patterns of economic change that permanently modified rural and urban production, altered Europe's economy and geography, and gave birth to new social classes. Broad in chronological and geographical scope and explicitly comparative, the book introduces readers to a wealth of information drawn from thoughout Mediterranean, east-central, and western Europe, as well as to the classic interpretations and current debates and revisions. The study incorporates scholarship on topics such as the world economy and women's work, and it discusses at length the impact of the emergent capitalist order on Europe's working people.
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agrarian agriculture Antwerp arable areas artisans became Cambridge capital capitalist Catalonia cheap cities cloth colonies commercial consumers consumption corvees costs cotton countryside crafts crisis crops cultivation demand demographic districts domestic drapery Dutch Republic Dutch Revolt early modern Economic History eighteenth century employed employers England English entrepreneurs estates Europe's European Economic History expensive exports fabrics farmers farms flax France French Germany grain growth guilds half holdings important income increasingly industrial Industrial Revolution innovations investment Italian Italy journeymen land landlords landowners later linen London long sixteenth century looms lords Low Countries manufactures markets masters medieval merchants Middle Ages output peasantry peasants percent population production proto-industrial provinces putting-out putting-out systems raw materials regions rents rising rural sector seigniorial seventeenth century sharecropping silk sought southern Netherlands Spain Spanish structures supply taxes tenants textile towns trades urban village water frames weavers weaving western women wool woollens workers