Word Meaning and Montague Grammar: The Semantics of Verbs and Times in Generative Semantics and in Montague's PTQ
The most general goal of this book is to propose and illustrate a program of research in word semantics that combines some of the methodology and results in linguistic semantics, primarily that of the generative semantics school, with the rigorously formalized syntactic and semantic framework for the analysis of natural languages developed by Richard Montague and his associates, a framework in which truth and denotation with respect to a model are taken as the fundamental semantic notions. I hope to show, both from the linguist's and the philosopher's point of view, not only why this synthesis can be undertaken but also why it will be useful to pursue it. On the one hand, the linguists' decompositions of word meanings into more primitive parts are by themselves inherently incomplete, in that they deal only in distinctions in meaning without providing an account of what mean ings really are. Not only can these analyses be made complete by a model theoretic semantics, but also such an account of these analyses renders them more exact and more readily testable than they could ever be otherwise.
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IN T E R V A L S E M A NT ICS AND THE PROG R ES SIVE TE NSE
E XI C A L DE COM POS IT ION IN M O N T A G U E G R A M M A R
Abstraction vs Predicate Raising
LINGUISTIC E VI DENCE FOR THE TWO S T R A T E GIES
T H E SYNTAX AND S E M A NT ICS OF TEN SES AND TIME
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accomplishment verbs achievements activity verb adjective adverbs ambiguous analysis appear AT(t Barbara Partee basic expressions Carlson causal CAUSE BECOME Chapter claim clause complement complex decomposition analyses defined definition denoted derived words direct object disambiguated language discussion distinction Dowty English entailments event example existential quantifier fact factitive formal formula GS theory hypothesis implicature inchoative individuals intensional logic internal reading interpretation interval intransitive intuitively involved John kind Lakoff lexical rules linguistic logical structure Mary McCawley meaning postulate model-theoretic Montague Grammar Montague's morpheme natural language notion noun occur operations Partee possible worlds Predicate Raising present problem progressive tense properties proposition quantifier relation restricted result scope seems semantic sentence stative predicates subinterval suggested surface structure syntactic category syntactic rules syntax tense tenseless future TmAV transformation transformational grammar transitive verb translation rule treatment true truth conditions underlying variables verb phrase