## The laws and applications of thermodynamics |

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activity coefficient applied approximately Carnot cycles cell chemical potential component composition constant pressure critical point curve defined dependent diagram difference dilute solution dissociation electrode potential electrolyte enthalpy enthalpy change equal equilibrium constant exact differential expansion external fugacity Gibbs free energy Gibbs-Duhem equation gives half-cell heat absorbed heat capacity heat of formation Helmholtz free energy Hence ideal behaviour ideal gas ideal gas mixture ideal gases ideal solution independent infinitesimal initial interaction internal energy ions isothermal Joule-Thomson kcal kcal mole-1 latent heat liquid mixture low pressures melting metal mixing molality molar entropy molar latent heat molar volume mole fraction molecular molecules normally partial molar partial pressure positive pure substance reactants residual entropy Show slope solid solvent specific heat standard temperature thermal thermodynamic functions third law unit activity vapour pressure virial coefficient virial equation Waals whence zero