Images, Issues, and Attacks: Television Advertising by Incumbents and Challengers in Presidential Elections
Images, Issues, and Attacks explores important differences between incumbents and challengers in the uses of televised advertising in modern presidential elections. Elections since 1956 can be divided into three categories: elections with strong incumbents, the incumbent wins; elections with weak incumbents, the incumbent loses; and elections with surrogate incumbents, the vice president runs. Incumbent and challenger advertising emphasizes personal imagery, links the imagery to specific issues, and attacks rivals for opposing those images and issues. The first part of the book describes how incumbents and challengers used these themes in the elections from 1980 to 2000. The second part applies those findings to the 2004 election and shows how George W. Bush presented himself as a strong incumbent and how he and his challengers varied their mix of images, issues, and attacks over different periods of the election campaign.
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INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL OVERVIEW
ELECTIONS WITH STRONG INCUMBENTS 1984 and 1996
ELECTIONS WITH WEAK INCUMBENTS 1980 AND 1992
ELECTIONS WITH SURROGATE INCUMBENTS 1988 and 2000
THE 2004 ELECTION NOMINATION CAMPAIGNS
THE 2004 ELECTION THE BUSH CAMPAIGN
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accomplishments advertising strategy Albert Gore Jr American appeared attack ads attacked Bush attacked Kerry battle began Bill Clinton Buchanan Bush campaign Bush's candidates Carter character concluded Congress debate defeated Democratic Dole Dole's Dukakis economic Edwards efforts election campaign electoral emphasized female narrator front-runner Gallup Poll Gephardt Gerald Ford goals Gore governor Hampshire imagery Iowa Iraq Iraq war Jimmy Carter John Kerry Kennedy Kerry's lead leader leadership linked Lyndon Johnson major McCain military Mondale narrator talked national convention needed Nixon nomination campaign opposition party partisans percent Perot political presidential elections primaries programs promises question reelection related ads relied Republican Richard Nixon rivals Robert Dole Ronald Reagan second term Senator similar slogan Social Security spending strong incumbents Super Tuesday surrogate incumbents tax cuts televised advertising television audience theme tion told viewers Tsongas vice president victory voters Walter Mondale weak incumbents