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Discussion of the formula equally likely
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accidental errors annuity assume assumption atomic average Banker Bayes Bernoulli's theorem Bertrand best value Buffon's needle calculate called Catalysis centre chance chapter coefficients coin curve Czuber definition differential equations dimensions discrepancy distribution of velocities E. F. Bleiler ellipse equally trustworthy event expectation expression favourable formula Fourier series function give given Hence increases indefinitely independent variables Index infinitesimal integral Karl Pearson large number law of error limit Maclaurin series mathematical mean error mean value measurements method multiplied normal equations number of molecules observed values oval Paperbound partial derivatives Peirce's Criterion physics Player Postulate premium present priori probability probable error problem proportional quantity random ratio region replace residual space square stake statistical Stirling's formula Suppose Theorem theory tion true value turn volume weighted mean zero