Black Morocco: A History of Slavery, Race, and Islam
Black Morocco: A History of Slavery, Race and Islam chronicles the experiences, identity, and agency of enslaved black people in Morocco from the sixteenth century to the beginning of the twentieth century. It demonstrates the extent to which religion orders society but also the extent to which the economic and political conditions influence the religious discourse and the ideology of enslavement. The interpretation and application of Islam did not guarantee the freedom and integration of black Moroccan ex-slaves into society. It starts with the Islamic legal discourse and racial stereotypes that existed in Moroccan society leading up to the era of Mawlay Isma'il (r. 1672-1727), with a special emphasis on the black army during and after his reign. The first part of the book provides a narrative relating the legal discourse on race, concubinage and slavery as well as historical events and developments that are not well known in printed scholarship and western contexts. The second part of the book is conceptually ambitious; it provides the reader with a deeper sense of the historical and sociological implications of the story being told across a long period of time, from the seventeenth to the twentieth centuries. Though the strongest element of theses chapters concerns the "black army," an important component of the discussion is the role of female slaves. One of the problems the historian faces with this kind of analysis is that it must rest on a limited "evidentiary base." This book has broadened this base and clarified the importance of female slaves in relation to the army and Moroccan society at large. The emphasis on the political history of the black army is augmented by a close examination of the continuity of black Moroccan identity through the musical and cultural practices of the Gnawa.
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Abd Allah ad—Du‘ayyif al-Mansur al—Bukhari al—Istiqsa Almoravid An—Nasiri Arabic Arabic text Az—Zayani Berbers Bilal black army black Moroccans black slaves black soldiers century color concubinage concubines cultural dynasty Essaouira ethnic European female slaves ﬁgure ﬁnd ﬁrst French translation Gnawa Hadith Hamitic Haratin Hence historian Hopkins and Levtzion Ibid Ibn Battuta Ibn Khaldun Ibn Marjan inﬂuence Islamic law land Leo Africanus ma malakat aymanukum Maghreb Makhzan malakat male Mali Maliki Maroc Marrakesh master Mawlay Abd Mawlay Isma‘il Mawlay Sulayman Meknes Mohamed Moroccan Moroccan society Muhammad Muslim North Africa ofﬁcers ofﬁcial ofthe Paris political Portuguese practice of slavery Prophet Qur’an Rabat race racial reﬂects region religious reported ruler Sa‘di Sahara Sanhaja scholars sexual slave trade slavery slavery in Morocco social sources speciﬁc status Sudan Suﬁ Sultan Mawlay Tarikh Timbuktu tion traditions trans-Saharan tribes Udaya Véronne West Africa Windus women wrote