Black Morocco: A History of Slavery, Race, and Islam
Black Morocco: A History of Slavery, Race, and Islam chronicles the experiences, identity, and achievements of enslaved black people in Morocco from the sixteenth century to the beginning of the twentieth century. Chouki El Hamel argues that we cannot rely solely on Islamic ideology as the key to explain social relations and particularly the history of black slavery in the Muslim world, for this viewpoint yields an inaccurate historical record of the people, institutions, and social practices of slavery in Northwest Africa. El Hamel focuses on black Moroccans' collective experience beginning with their enslavement to serve as the loyal army of the Sultan Isma'il. By the time the Sultan died in 1727, they had become a political force, making and unmaking rulers well into the nineteenth century. The emphasis on the political history of the black army is augmented by a close examination of the continuity of black Moroccan identity through the musical and cultural practices of the Gnawa.
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Abd Allah ad—Du‘ayyif al-Mansur al—Bukhari al—Istiqsa Almoravid An—Nasiri Arabic Arabic text Az—Zayani Berbers Bilal black army black Moroccans black slaves black soldiers century color concubinage concubines cultural dynasty Essaouira ethnic European female slaves ﬁgure ﬁnd ﬁrst French translation Gnawa Hadith Hamitic Haratin Hence historian Hopkins and Levtzion Ibid Ibn Battuta Ibn Khaldun Ibn Marjan inﬂuence Islamic law land Leo Africanus ma malakat aymanukum Maghreb Makhzan malakat male Mali Maliki Maroc Marrakesh master Mawlay Abd Mawlay Isma‘il Mawlay Sulayman Meknes Mohamed Moroccan Moroccan society Muhammad Muslim North Africa ofﬁcers ofﬁcial ofthe Paris political Portuguese practice of slavery Prophet Qur’an Rabat race racial reﬂects region religious reported ruler Sa‘di Sahara Sanhaja scholars sexual slave trade slavery slavery in Morocco social sources speciﬁc status Sudan Suﬁ Sultan Mawlay Tarikh Timbuktu tion traditions trans-Saharan tribes Udaya Véronne West Africa Windus women wrote