The Philosophy of Biology: An Episodic History
Does life (for the living) differ from that of the non-living? If so, how? And how, in that case, does biology as the study of living things differ from other sciences? These questions are examined through an exploration of episodes in the history of biology and philosophy.
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Aristotle and After
Descartes Harvey and the Emergence of Modern Mechanism
The Eighteenth Century I Buffon
The Eighteenth Century II Kant and the Development of German Biology
Before Darwin I A Continental Controversy
Before Darwin II British Controversies about Geology and Natural Theology
Evolution and Heredity from Darwin to the Rise of Genetics
adaptation argued argument Aristotelian Aristotle Aristotle’s biologists Blumenbach brieﬂy Buffon called Cambridge causal century Chapter chieﬂy cladists classiﬁcation comparative anatomy Critique CSMK Cuvier Darwin Darwinian deﬁned deﬁnition Descartes Descartes’s difﬁculty Dobzhansky Eldredge environment evolution evolutionary example existence explanation fact ﬁeld ﬁgures ﬁnal causes ﬁnally ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬁt ﬁtness function Galton genes genetic genome Geoffroy Geoffroy’s geology Gould Harvey heredity Herschel History of Animals human idea individual inﬂuence Kant Kant’s kind Lamarck laws Linnaeus living things Lyell matter Mayr Mayr’s mechanism mechanistic Mendel Mendelian Modern Evolutionary Synthesis Modern Synthesis modiﬁcation molecular natural history natural selection naturalists notion objects organisms Origin Origin of Species philosophy of biology philosophy of science physics population principle question reason refer reﬂective reproduction seems sense sort species concept speciﬁc structure substances sufﬁcient teleological theory thought tion traits transmutation uniformitarianism unity University Press variation Whewell Wright