Theory of Heat

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Longmans, Green, and Company, 1872 - Heat - 313 pages
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This classic sets forth the fundamentals of thermodynamics and kinetic theory simply enough to be understood by beginners, yet with enough subtlety to appeal to more advanced readers, too.

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Page 168 - For compressible flow this becomes: where y is the ratio of the specific heat at constant pressure to that at constant volume...
Page 82 - Ibs. in a cu. ft. of water. The specific gravity of a body is the ratio of its density to that of some standard substance. The standard usually employed is water at 4 C.
Page 151 - It is impossible for a self-acting machine, unaided by any external agency, to convey heat from one body to another at a higher temperature ; or heat cannot of itself (that is, without compensation) pass from a colder to a warmer body.
Page 74 - The most important step in the progress of every science is the measurement of quantities. Those whose curiosity is satisfied with observing what happens have occasionally done service by directing the attention of others to the phenomena they have seen; but it is to those who endeavour to find out how much there is of anything that we owe all the great advances in our knowledge.
Page 24 - ... warmed, though the lowest layer is always the hottest. As the temperature increases, the absorbed air which is generally found in ordinary water, is expelled and rises in small bubbles without noise. At last the water in contact with the heated metal becomes so hot that, in spite of the pressure of the atmosphere on the surface of the water, the additional pressure due to the water in the vessel, and the cohesion of the water itself, some of the water at the bottom is transformed into steam,...
Page 306 - But if we conceive a being whose faculties are so sharpened that he can follow every molecule in its course...
Page 150 - Thermodynamics. — When work is transformed into heat, or heat into work, the quantity of work is mechanically equivalent to the quantity of heat.
Page 122 - By varying the pressure or temperature, but always keeping above 30-92, the great changes of density which occur about this point produce the flickering movements I formerly described, resembling in an exaggerated form the appearances exhibited during the mixture of liquids of different densities, or when columns of heated air ascend through colder strata.
Page 306 - Now let us suppose that such a vessel is divided into two portions A and B, by a division in which there is a small hole, and that a being, who can see the individual molecules, opens and closes this hole, so as to allow only the swifter molecules to pass from A to B, and only the slower ones to pass from B to A. He will thus, without expenditure of work, raise the temperature of B and lower that of A, in contradiction to the second law of thermodynamics.
Page 274 - ... alteration is just going to take place is called the limit of perfect elasticity. If the stress, when it is maintained constant, causes a strain or displacement in the body which increases continually with the time, the substance is said to be viscous.

About the author (1872)

James Maxwell was a British physicist who developed a standard theoretical model for the modern understanding of electricity and magnetism. He showed that these two phenomena are two aspects of the same field and as a result he unified and systematized a vast field of research. Maxwell took many diverse observations and qualitative concepts developed by Michael Faraday and others, formulating them into a unified theory between 1864 and 1873. On the basis of this theory, Maxwell predicted that electromagnetic waves should exist and travel with the speed of light, and he identified light as a form of electromagnetic radiation. Both of these predictions were experimentally confirmed. Maxwell's other great contribution to physics was formulating a mathematical basis for the kinetic theory of gases. Using a statistical approach, he related the velocity of the molecules in a gas to its temperature, showing that heat results from the motion of molecules. Maxwell's result had been conjectured for some time, but it had never been supported experimentally. Maxwell then expanded his research to study viscosity, diffusion, and other properties of gases. Maxwell also provided the first satisfactory explanation of Saturn's rings. He established on theoretical grounds that the rings are not solid but rather composed of many small, fragmented objects that orbit Saturn.

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