The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, Volume 1 (Google eBook)Isaac Newton's The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy translated by Andrew Motte and published in two volumes in 1729 remains the first and only translation of Newton's Philosophia naturalis principia mathematica, which was first published in London in 1687. As the most famous work in the history of the physical sciences there is little need to summarize the contents.J. Norman, 2006. 
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Common terms and phrases
ABFD accelerative forces altitude angle VCP apsides attracting body axis bisected body revolving centre of force centre of gravity centripetal force circle common centre conic section corpuscle curve line curvilinear cycloid decrease descend described diameter diminished distance draw drawn duplicate ratio Earth ellipsis evanescent fame ratio fame thing figure focus given by position given points given ratio globe greater Hence hyperbola immoveable infinitum inversely latus rectum Lemma let fall meeting motion move nodes orbit ordinate parabola parallel parallelogram particles perpendicular plane principal axe principal vertex Problem prop Proposition quadratures quantity radius ratio compounded rectangle rectilinear right lines given Scholium scribe similar triangles sine space sphærical sphere square subducted subduplicate ratio superficies suppose syzygies tangent thence Theorem thofe touch trajectory trapezium triangles upper apsis velocity Wherefore whofe whole
Popular passages
Page 9  Absolute, true, and mathematical time, of itself, and from its own nature, flows equably without relation to anything external, and by another name is called duration: relative, apparent, and common time, is some sensible and external (whether accurate or unequable) measure of duration by the means of motion, which is commonly used instead of true time; such as an hour, a day, a month, a year.
Page 66  From the same demonstration it likewise follows that the arc which a body, uniformly revolving in a circle by means of a given centripetal force, describes in any time is a mean proportional between the diameter of the circle and the space which the same body falling by the same given force would descend through in the same given time.
Page 36  ... of a hammer) is (as far as I can perceive) certain and determined, and makes the bodies to return one from the other with a relative velocity, which is in a given ratio to that relative velocity with which they met.
Page 19  The change of motion is proportional to the motive force impressed; and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impressed.
Page 41  QUANTITIES, AND THE RATIOS OF QUANTITIES, WHICH IN ANY FINITE TIME CONVERGE CONTINUALLY TO EQUALITY, AND BEFORE THE END OF THAT TIME APPROACH NEARER THE ONE TO THE OTHER THAN BY ANY GIVEN DIFFERENCE, BECOME ULTIMATELY EQUAL.
Page 20  If a body impinge upon another, and by its force change the motion of the other, that body also (because of the equality of the mutual pressure) will undergo an equal change, in its own motion, towards the contrary part.
Page 15  The effects which distinguish absolute from relative motion are the forces of receding from the axis of circular motion. For there are no such forces in a circular motion purely relative, but in a true and absolute circular motion they are greater or less, according to the quantity of the motion.
Page 3  This force consists in the action only, and remains no longer in the body when the action is over. For a body maintains every new state it acquires, by its inertia only. But impressed forces are of different origins, as from percussion, from pressure, from centripetal force.