Soil Retaining Structures
Models for structural analysis are needed in order to design safe and reliable soil-retaining structures. This study evaluates numerical models, mostly based on finite element techniques. This book provides a frame of reference for verification and validation of these models.
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FLEXIBLE RETAINING WALLS
DEVELOPMENT OF MODELS FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
SOIL MECHANICS AND GROUNDWATER FLOW
BORED TUNNELS IN SOFT SOIL
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
LIST OF SYMBOLS
APPENDIX A EQUATIONS OF EQUILIBRIUM FOR A RING
APPENDIX B ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE FOR A TUNNEL LINING
according alternatives applied approach aspects assumed back-analysis beam element behaviour bending moments bored tunnel boundary condition calculated chapter civil engineering considered construction cover layer deformations derived described design process development of models discussed displacements distribution elastic equation equilibrium evaluation excavation external cost failure feasible Figure finite element analysis finite element method flexible retaining wall formulation friction angle function give groundwater flow groundwater head horizontal integral Lelystad marginal matrix measurements mechanism models for structural normal forces numerical analysis observed optimisation Oude Maas parameters partial safety factors permeability plastic PLAXIS pore-water practice prediction pressure problem recognised respect revetment ring Second Heinenoord tunnel segments shear shear modulus sheet pile sheet pile wall situation soil loading soil retaining structures soil stresses stability stage step stiffness strain structural analysis structural design tunnel boring machine tunnel lining ultimate limit uplift volume loss weight Young's modulus zone