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absolute temperature absorbed adiabatic adiabatic lines atmosphere boiling Boyle's law called calorimeter Capillarity carbonic acid colder compression condensation conductivity constant cooling curve degree density depends determine diagram diffusion diminishes direction distance dynamical effect elasticity emitted entropy equal equilibrium evaporation expansion experiments expressed Fahrenheit flow of heat fluid force gaseous gases given gravity greater height Hence horizontal hot body hotter increase indicator diagram isothermal lines Joule kind kinetic energy latent heat light liquid means measured medium melting mercury method millimetre motion number of molecules observed pass perature phenomena piston plane portions pound pressure produce proportional quantity of heat radiation rays represents scale solid specific gravity specific heat square steam stratum substance superficial tension suppose surface temperature rises thermal thermal conductivity thermal equilibrium thermodynamic thermometer tube unit of mass unit of volume vapour velocity vessel viscosity wave wave-length whole
Page 82 - The specific gravity of a body is the ratio of its density to that of some standard substance.
Page 153 - It is impossible for a self-acting machine, unaided by any external agency, to convey heat from one body to another at a higher temperature ; or heat cannot of itself (that is, without compensation) pass from a colder to a warmer body.
Page 32 - Temperature. — The temperature of a body is its thermal state considered with reference to its power of communicat.ing heat to other bodies.
Page 77 - The straight line or distance between the centres of the transverse lines in the two gold plugs in the bronze bar deposited in the Office of the Exchequer shall be the genuine standard of length at 62° F., and if lost it shall be replaced by means of its copies.
Page 24 - ... warmed, though the lowest layer is always the hottest. As the temperature increases, the absorbed air which is generally found in ordinary water, is expelled and rises in small bubbles without noise. At last the water in contact with the heated metal becomes so hot that, in spite of the pressure of the atmosphere on the surface of the water, the additional pressure due to the water in the vessel, and the cohesion of the water itself, some of the water at the bottom is transformed into steam,...
Page 339 - ... division in which there is a small hole, and that a being, who can see the individual molecules, opens and closes this hole, so as to allow only the swifter molecules to pass from A to B, and only the slower ones to pass from B to A. He will thus, without expenditure of work, raise the temperature of B and lower that of A, in contradiction to the second law of thermodynamics.
Page 338 - But if we conceive a being whose faculties are so sharpened that he can follow every molecule in its course...
Page 302 - If the form of the body is found to be permanently altered when the stress exceeds a certain value, the body is said to be soft, or plastic, and the state of the body when the alteration is just going to take place is called the Limit of Perfect Elasticity.
Page 305 - Maxwell denned the coefficient of viscosity as follows: "The coefficient of viscosity of a substance is measured by the tangential force on unit area of either of two horizontal planes at unit distance apart, one of which is fixed while the other moves with unit velocity, the space between being filled with the viscous substance.