## The Hall Effect and Its ApplicationsIn 1879, while a graduate student under Henry Rowland at the Physics Department of The Johns Hopkins University, Edwin Herbert Hall discovered what is now universally known as the Hall effect. A symposium was held at The Johns Hopkins University on November 13, 1979 to commemorate the lOOth anniversary of the discovery. Over 170 participants attended the symposium which included eleven in vited lectures and three speeches during the luncheon. During the past one hundred years, we have witnessed ever ex panding activities in the field of the Hall effect. The Hall effect is now an indispensable tool in the studies of many branches of condensed matter physics, especially in metals, semiconductors, and magnetic solids. Various components (over 200 million!) that utilize the Hall effect have been successfully incorporated into such devices as keyboards, automobile ignitions, gaussmeters, and satellites. This volume attempts to capture the important aspects of the Hall effect and its applications. It includes the papers presented at the symposium and eleven other invited papers. Detailed coverage of the Hall effect in amorphous and crystalline metals and alloys, in magnetic materials, in liquid metals, and in semiconductors is provided. Applications of the Hall effect in space technology and in studies of the aurora enrich the discussions of the Hall effect's utility in sensors and switches. The design and packaging of Hall elements in integrated circuit forms are illustrated. |

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### Contents

1 | |

The Hall Effect of Ferromagnets | 55 |

Hall Effect from Skew Scattering by Magnetic Impurities | 77 |

Hall Effect in Single Crystals of Iron e | 99 |

Hall Effect in Amorphous Metals | 137 |

The Hall Effect in Liquid Metals | 201 |

Experimental Results | 215 |

Experimental Hall Effect Data for a SmallPolaron | 253 |

Electron Correlation and Activated Hall Mobility | 355 |

Some General Inputoutput Rules Governing Hall | 375 |

Hall Currents in the Aurora | 399 |

Hall Effect Formulae and Units | 417 |

Packaging Hall Effect Devices | 447 |

Hall Effect Magnetometers for High Magnetic Fields | 463 |

Applications of Hall Effect Devices | 481 |

The Background | 509 |

The Hall Effect in Hopping Conduction | 281 |

Hall Effect and the Beauty and Challenges of Science | 299 |

The Hall Effect in Heavily Doped Semiconductors | 339 |

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alloys amorphous alloys amorphous metals anisotropy Appl Phys atomic auroral band structure behaviour calculated carrier concentration charge carriers circuit components conduction band conduction electrons contribution crystal crystalline direction drift mobility electric field electrical resistivity energy equation experimental factor Fermi surface ferromagnetic Fert free electron free electron model frequency function Güntherodt Hall angle Hall coefficient Hall effect Hall element Hall field Hall mobility Hall resistivity Hall voltage Hall's high-field hopping Hurd impurities increase interaction lattice layer LiNbO3 linear liquid metals Lorentz force low-field magnetic field magnetoresistance Malmhall materials measured O'Handley observed orbit ordinary Hall p-type parameters phonon plot polaron positive potential probe range sample satellite semiconductors shown in Figure shows side jump silicon skew scattering small-polaron solid spin spin-orbit spontaneous Hall temperature dependence tensor theory thermal thermopower tion transition metals transverse zero