Engineering Properties of Nickel and Nickel Alloys
Nickel is probably the most versatile of the metallic elements. Among alloys containing nickel are some having high corrosion resistance and others that retain excellent strength and ductility from temperatures approaching ab solute zero to those near 2000 F. Some nickel alloys are strongly magnetic, others are virtually nonmagnetic; some have low rates of thermal expansion, others have high rates; some have high electrical resistivities; some have practically constant moduli of elasticity; one has an "elastic" memory. In addition, nickel is magnetostrictive. With this wide range of characteristics, it is not surprising that there are several thousand alloys containing nickel. It is impossible to consider all of these compositions in this publication and, therefore, several alloys in each of a number of categories have been selected to indicate the properties to be expected of the group. Low-alloy and constructional nickel-containing steels have been excluded on two grounds. To do them justice would require excessive space and, in addition, their applications differ generally from these of the materials under discussion. On the other hand, nickel-containing stainkss steels have been included because many of their applications fall into the same areas as those of a number of the high-nickel alloys. Many of the compositions discussed are proprietary alloys and they are protected by trademarks. A list of the trademarks and their owners is in cluded in the appendix.
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addition age hardened air cooled Alnico annealed annealed condition applications approximately carbon cast Charpy chromium cobalt Coefficient of thermal Cold drawn cold rolled commercial nickel comparable compositions condition considerably containing copper corrosion creep decrease Density designated developed discussed ductility effect electrical resistivity elongation Engineering example F Fig falls fatigue strength ft-lb given in Table hardness Hastelloy alloy heat heat treatment higher Hot rolled impact improve included Inconel alloy increase indicated iron Limited low temperatures lower magnetic material measured Mechanical Properties Melting Metals moderate modifications Modulus of elasticity Monel Monel alloy nickel alloy nickel content nickel silvers Physical Properties powder precipitation produced range ratio reduction result room temperature rupture sheet shown shows similar stainless steels Standards Stress strip tensile properties tensile strength tests Thermal conductivity thermal expansion toughness treated Type Typical values various wrought Yield strength