Lightning: Physics and Effects

Front Cover
Cambridge University Press, 2003 - Science - 687 pages
2 Reviews
This is the first book to cover essentially all aspects of lightning, including lightning physics, lightning protection, and the interaction of lightning with a variety of objects and systems as well as with the environment. Accessible to the technical non-expert, it is addressed to anyone interested in lightning and its effects. This will include physicists, engineers working in the power, communications, computer, and aviation industries, meteorologists, atmospheric chemists, foresters, ecologists, physicians, and architects. Highly illustrated and containing an extensive bibliography, this book can also be used as a graduate text.
 

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Something on Jupiter. 查电波女与青春男考据时偶遇

Contents

Introduction
1
12 Types of lightning discharge and lightning terminology
4
13 Summary of salient lightning properties
6
15 Regarding the utilization of lightning energy
12
Incidence of lightning
24
23 Thunderstorm days
35
24 Thunderstorm hours
36
25 Lightning flash density
37
115 Acoustic imaging of lightning channels
387
116 Summary
389
Modeling of lightning processes
394
123 Dart leader
415
124 Stepped leader
417
125 Mcomponent
419
126 Other processes
420
References and bibliography
421

26 Longterm variations in lightning incidence
43
27 Ratio of cloud flashes to cloudtoground flashes
44
28 Characteristics of lightning as a function of season location and storm type
46
29 Lightning incidence to various objects
49
210 Summary
52
Electrical structure of lightningproducing clouds
67
32 Cumulonimbus
68
33 Noncumulonimbus
91
34 Summary
93
Downward negative lightning discharges to ground
108
43 Initial breakdown
116
44 Stepped leader
122
45 Attachment process
137
46 Return stroke
143
47 Subsequent leader
164
48 Continuing current
173
49 Mcomponent
176
410 J and Kprocesses
182
411 Regular pulse bursts
188
412 Summary
190
References and bibliography
191
Positive and bipolar lightning discharges to ground
214
52 Conditions conducive to the occurrence of positive lightning
217
53 Characterization of positive lightning
218
54 Bipolar lightning discharges to ground
232
55 Summary
233
References and bibliography
234
Upward lightning initiated by groundbased objects
241
62 General characterization
244
63 Overall electrical characteristics
247
64 Impulsive currents
250
65 Lightning current reflections within tall objects
252
66 Electromagnetic fields due to lightning strikes to tall objects
259
67 Acoustic output
260
Artificial initiation triggering of lightning by groundbased activity
265
72 Rockettriggered lightning
266
73 Other lightning triggering techniques
296
74 Concluding remarks
299
Winter lightning in Japan
308
83 Evolution of winter thunderclouds
309
84 Characteristics of natural winter lightning
311
85 Rockettriggered lightning in winter
314
86 Summary
316
Cloud discharges
321
92 General information
322
93 Phenomenology inferred from VHFUHF imaging
326
94 Early active stage
329
95 Late final stage
338
96 Comparison with ground discharges
340
97 Summary
341
Lightning and airborne vehicles
346
102 Statistics on lightning strikes to aircraft
348
103 Major airborne research programs
350
104 Mechanisms of lightningaircraft interaction
353
105 Lightning test standards
362
106 Accidents
364
107 Summary
369
Thunder
374
113 Generation mechanisms
377
114 Propagation
386
The distant lightning electromagnetic environment atmospherics Schumann resonances and whistlers
432
132 Theoretical background
435
133 Atmospherics sferics
443
134 Schumann resonances
449
135 Whistlers
454
136 Radio noise
459
137 Summary
461
Lightning effects in the middle and upper atmosphere
480
142 Upward lightning channels from cloud tops
481
143 Lowluminosity transient discharges in the mesosphere
482
lowluminosity transient phenomena in the lower ionosphere
492
145 Runaway electrons Xrays and gammarays
493
146 Interaction of lightning and thundercloud electric fields with the ionosphere and the magnetosphere
495
147 Summary
497
Lightning effects on the chemistry of the atmosphere
507
152 Mechanism of NO production by returnstroke channels
511
153 Laboratory determination of NO yield per unit energy
514
155 Estimation of global NO production using the flash extrapolation approach FEA
516
157 Estimation of NO production from extrapolation of nuclear explosion data
518
159 Production of trace gases in the primitive Earth atmosphere and in the atmospheres of other planets
519
1510 Summary
520
References and bibliography
521
Extraterrestrial lightning
528
162 Detection techniques
530
163 Venus
531
164 Jupiter
536
165 Saturn
543
166 Uranus
544
167 Neptune
545
168 Concluding remarks
546
References and bibliography
547
Lightning locating systems
555
172 Electric and magnetic field amplitude techniques
556
173 Magnetic field direction finding
558
174 Timeofarrival technique
562
175 The US National Lightning Detection Network
565
176 Interferometry
568
177 Groundbased optical direction finding
570
179 Radar
572
1710 Summary
573
Deleterious effects of lightning and protective techniques
588
183 Protection
589
184 Lightning interaction with specific objects and systems
610
185 Lightning test standards
624
186 Summary
626
Lightning hazards to humans and animals
642
192 Electrical aspects
644
193 Medical aspects
646
194 Personal safety
648
References and bibliography
649
Ball lightning bead lightning and other unusual discharges
656
202 Witness reports of ball lightning
658
203 Ball lightning statistics
662
205 Laboratory simulation of ball lightning
663
206 Bead lightning
665
207 Other types of unusual lightning and lightninglike discharges
666
208 Concluding comments
669
books on lightning and related subjects
675
Index
679
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About the author (2003)

Vladimir A. Rakov is a professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Florida. He was previously Director of the Lightning Research Laboratory at Tomsk Polytechnical University, Russia.

Martin A. Uman was the co-founder and President of Lightning Location and Protection, Inc. (LLP) and is now a professor and Chair of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Florida.

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