Mass Extinction

Front Cover
Ashraf M.T. Elewa
Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 3, 2007 - Science - 252 pages
P. David Polly Department of Geological Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA, pdpolly@indiana.edu Only 200 years ago, extinction was a radical new idea. Fossils were known, but their identity as the remains of species that no longer lived on the face of the Earth was not yet firmly established in the scientific world. Arguments that these organic-looking objects from the rocks were merely bizarre mineralizations or that they were the remains of species still living th in unexplored regions of the world had dominated 18 Century interpretations of fossils. But the settling of North America and other colonial expeditions by Europeans were quickly making the world smaller. In 1796 Cuvier painstakingly demonstrated that the anatomy of the mastodon skeleton from Big Bone Lick in Kentucky could not possibly belong to a modern elephant, unlike the mammoth fossils found in Europe, which are so similar to the living African Elephant that many found plausible the explanation that they were bones of animals used by the Roman army. Any doubt that Cuvier’s mastodon still lived in the wilds of the western North American interior was crushed ten years later when the Lewis and Clark expedition failed to find any sign of them.
 

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Contents

Mass Extinction a general view
1
References
4
Late Ordovician mass extinction
5
References
7
The End Ordovician an ice age in the middle of a greenhouse
9
The discovery of the glacial period
10
The changing face of the Ordovician glaciation
12
34 Trilobite extinction and larval form
15
962 Environmental analysis
113
963 Mass extinction analysis
115
97 Discussion and conclusions
121
98 Acknowledgements
124
References
125
KPg mass extinction
128
References
130
Causes of mass extinction at the KPg boundary A case study from the North African Plate
133

35 Future work
17
References
18
Silurian global events at the tipping point of climate change
20
42 The Silurian marine scene
24
43 Discovery of the Silurian global events
25
431 Early discoveries
27
432 The theory of Silurian oceanic events
28
433 The increased use of stable isotope stratigraphy
29
44 The Early Silurian Ireviken Event
31
442 Groups affected
33
443 Stable isotopes
34
444 Sedimentary changes and sealevel
35
451 Stratigraphic position
36
452 Groups affected
37
453 Stable isotopes
38
46 The Late Silurian Lau Event
39
461 Stratigraphic position
40
463 Stable isotopes
41
464 Sedimentary changes and sealevel
42
47 Structure of the Silurian global events
43
472 Temporal and spatial development and biodiversity
45
473 Carbon isotope stratigraphy
47
474 Sealevel change and sedimentary facies
48
475 Taxonomic vs ecologic events
49
49 Acknowledgement
50
Late Devonian mass extinction
59
References
60
Late Permian mass extinction
61
Reference
62
Late Triassic mass extinction
63
References
64
Reexamination of the endTriassic mass extinction
65
82 Late Triassic Timescale
66
84 Extinctions of taxonomic groups
71
842 Marine bivalves
73
843 Ammonoids
74
844 Reef builders
75
845 Conodonts
78
846 Land plants
80
847 Tetrapods
82
85 Ecological severity
85
86 Causes of the TJB extinctions
86
87 Late Triassic extinction events
88
88 Acknowledgments
90
CenomanianTuronian mass extinction of macroinvertebrates in the context of Paleoecology A case study from North Wadi Qena Eastern Desert Egypt
103
92 Geographical and geologic setting
105
93 Material and methods
106
94 Correlation of diversity and preservation
107
95 Biostratigraphy
108
96 Results
109
112 Material and methods
134
113 Quantitative results
135
1132 Principal coordinate analysis
137
114 Qualitative results
138
115 Discussion and conclusions
142
116 Acknowledgements
146
References
147
Patterns and causes of mass extinction at the KPg boundary Planktonic foraminifera from the North African Plate
149
122 Stratigraphy
150
1222 Dakhla Formation
151
124 Results and discussion
153
125 Acknowledgements
157
References
158
Quaternary extinctions in Southeast Asia Julien Louys
159
132 The Quaternary megafauna extinctions
160
1323 Towards a reconciliation
164
133 Quaternary Extinctions in Southeast Asia
165
1332 Geological History
166
1333 Climate
168
1335 Sea level changes
170
134 Southeast Asias megafauna
172
1343 Asian Gazelle
173
1346 Giant Hyena
174
1349 Stegodons
175
13411 Giant Tapir
176
13415 Archaic elephant
177
136 Climate change and megafauna
178
137 The modern extinction crisis
181
138 Summary
182
139 Acknowledgements
183
Current mass extinction
190
Current insect extinctions
195
152 Insect mass extinctions in the past
197
153 Types of current insect extinctions
200
1531 Lessons from island ecology
202
1532 Insect extinctions induced by changes in succession status
204
1533 Insect extinctions from climate change
206
154 The prediction of certain insect extinctions
209
1542 The Raup extinction model and the kill curve
210
1543 Causes of current insect extinction
212
1545 Habitat fragmentation destruction modification
217
1546 Species invasions introductions
221
1547 Coextinctions
223
1548 Hybridization and introgression
225
155 Conservation of insect species and their biodiversities
227
1552 Conserving insects through habitat plant conservation
234
1553 Conserving insect biodiversity in city parks and road verges
237
156 Acknowledgements
240
Index
250
Copyright

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About the author (2007)

Ashraf Elewa is currently a professor at the University of Minia, Egypt, from where he earned his B.Sc in Geology and his M. Sc. in Lithostratigraphy and Paleontology, and finally his Ph.D. in Micropalentology. His fields of research range from paleontology to traditional and geometric morphometrics and systematics and evolutionary trends in ostracoda.

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