Philosophical Transactions, Volume 173, Part 2

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C. Davis, Printer to the Royal Society of London, 1882 - Science
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Page 523 - Any attempt to express, even in a comparatively complicated chemical equation, the nature of the metamorphosis which a gunpowder of average composition may be considered to undergo when exploded in a confined space, would...
Page 549 - As the oxygen of the saltpetre is not sufficient to oxidize all the carbon to carbonic acid, and all the sulphur to sulphuric acid, a portion of the carbon and a portion of the sulphur are left free at the end of the process of oxidation. The carbon so left free reduces, during the second stage of the combustion, potassic sulphate, and the free sulphur decomposes potassic carbonate. Hydrogen and marsh-gas, which are formed by the action of heat upon charcoal, likewise reduce potassic sulphate, and...
Page 403 - Acipenser), and very probably in all, developed continuously with the haemal processes, and become subsequently segmented from them. They are serially homologous with the ventral parts of the haemal arches of the tail, which, like them, are in many instances (Ceratodus, Lepidosteus, Polypterus, and to some extent in Amia) segmented off from the basal parts of the haemal arches.
Page 393 - ... the adult, and there is no break of continuity of structure between the haemal arches of the tail and the ribs. In the anterior part of the trunk, the ribs pass outwards along the intermuscular septa till they reach the epidermis. Thus the ribs are originally continuous with the haemal processes. Behind the region of the ventral caudal fin the two haemal processes merge into one, which is not perforated by a canal. Each of the intervertebral rings of cartilage becomes eventually divided into...
Page 411 - ... fishes are compared, and the following conclusions are arrived at : (1.) The ventral lobe of the tail-fin of Pisces differs from the other unpaired fins in the fact that its fin-rays are directly supported by spinous processes of certain of the haemal arches, instead of by indently developed interspinous bones.
Page 594 - P' is, as before, the emergent light ; N, N', X, X' are the two positions of the normal to the face and the axis. In the first position the plane of polarization is P' AN X. In the second position let it be P' K. Mr. Glazebrook finds P'KA = 5 3'. The angle, however, that we wish to find, is the angle through which the plane of polarization has been turned about the direction of the ray, viz. A P' K, and this, of course, is not equal to 90- P'K A.
Page 558 - ... represented by the foregoing equations may be expressed by one equation, as follows : Let x represent the number of molecules of saltpetre, " y " " " " atoms " carbon, " z " " " " " " sulphur, " a " " " " molecules of carbonic oxide, formed by the combustion of such a powder (x, y^ z being positive numbers). The general equation representing the qualitative and quantitative relations between the constituents of the powder on the one hand and the products of complete combustion on the other will...
Page 644 - ... following general statement : — " The negative result that, under the exceptionally favourable conditions presented by these erect trees, no remains of any animals of higher rank than the Microsauria and Labyrinthodontia have been found deserves notice here. It seems to indicate that no small animals of higher grade inhabited the forests of Nova Scotia at the period in question ; but this would not exclude the possibility of the existence of higher animals of a larger size than the hollow trees...
Page 404 - Salmon) obscured by the anterior haemal arches (ie those in the posterior part of the trunk) being completed, not by the ribs, but by independent outgrowths of the basal parts of the haemal processes. In Elasmobranchii a still further divergence from the primitive arrangement is present. The ribs appear to have passed outwards, along the intermuscular septa, into the muscles; and are placed between the dorso-lateral and ventro-lateral muscles (a change of position of the ribs of the same nature is...
Page 587 - If a mixture of saltpetre, carbon, and sulphur were required which shall possess nearly the greatest energy, and at the same time contain the smallest amounts of carbon and sulphur compatible with this condition, theory would point to the mixture The service powders of most nations fluctuate about 14.

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