Thermal Discharges at Nuclear Power Stations: Their Management and Environmental Impacts: a Report Prepared by a Group of Experts as the Result of a Panel Meeting Held in Vienna, 23-27 October 1972
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SYSTEMS AND THERMAL DISCHARGES
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ambient analysis application approach atmosphere average behaviour biological bulb capacity caused changes characteristics cold Computer condenser consideration considered cooling pond cooling towers cooling water countries currents cycle depends determine developed diffusion direct dispersion distribution dry cooling economic effects efficiency effluents electrical energy environment environmental evaporation example factors field fish flow given impact important increase industrial intake lakes limited loss mathematical models mechanical method Michigan mixing natural draught nuclear plants nuclear power observed occurs once-through operation organisms oxygen physical plume Point Pollution pond population possible power plant power stations predict present problem production receiving water reduced region relative reported Research result rise river shown shows species steam studies summer surface TABLE thermal discharges turbine United various warm waste heat water body water temperature wind YES NO YES YES YES YES