Synergetics: Strength and Fracture of Metallic Materials
In approaches of a new science - synergetics - the deformed solid is examined as a synergetic system exchanging energy and matter with the environment. Taking these approaches and fractal theory into account, the author generalizes the literature data on the mechanical behaviour of materials. Fracture is interpreted as a nonequilibrium phase transition preceded by spontaneous rearrangement of the dislocation substructure. Parameters characterising the dissipative properties of materials are proposed and the existence of an universal relationship between the fundamental mechanical properties on micro- and macro levels is shown. Extensive experimental data confirming this relationship on the basis of steels with different strength levels are presented.
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amorphous analysis associated atoms basis behaviour bifurcation points boundaries cellular structure characteristic coefficient constant controlling corresponding crack edge crack growth criteria criterion crystal lattice deformed solid dependence determined developed disclination dislocation density dislocation structure dissipative properties dissipative structures dissipative system ductility dynamic effect elastic ensures entropy equation equilibrium evolution examined experimental factor formation fractal dimension fracture mechanics free fracture function hardening increase initial instability intermetallic internal energy kinetic large number linked loading materials mechanical properties melting method microcrack microscopic Moscow nature nonlinear parameters particles percolation theory phase transitions plastic deformation possible relationship result scale invariance screw dislocations self-modelling self-organization self-organization of dissipative self-similar shear shows slip specimen stability stage steel strain energy density strength stress struc surface synergetic systems takes place taking into account technologies temperature tensile theory thermal thermodynamic thermodynamic equilibrium threshold tion ture values variation volume welding yield limit