General course of private international law: selected problems

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Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1989 - Conflict of laws - 400 pages
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Contents

Denominations of private international law Chapter II The unification of the legal systems 39
19
The spatial validity of the solutions
20
Methods to obtain international harmony of decisions
21
Possibility to use both methods
22
The unification of the conflicts rules in America
23
The efforts undertaken in Europe
24
Unification of substantive laws
25
The collaboration of international organizations to obtain unifica tion
26
The convenience of the vested rights exception
177
The vested rights to explain the basis of private international
178
The vested rights and the classical method
179
New construction of the vested rights doctrine
180
Spatial limits of the conflict rules
181
Explanation of the exception on justice reasons
182
The vested rights and the unilateral rules
183
Civil Code of Portugal 131 Family Code of Senegal 132 Civil Code of Spain
184

Principal results obtained
27
Difficulties and inconveniences of complete substantive unification
28
Juridical areas better suited for unification
29
International commercial
30
The lex mercatoria
31
Conventions and other ways to obtain unification
32
Selfexecutory conventions
33
Model laws
34
Conventions to regulate internal and international cases
35
Erga omnes conventions
36
Importance of the preparatory work
37
Efforts to obtain regional unification in Latin America
38
The language difficulties
39
Different interpretations of the conventions
40
The possibility of their petrification
41
The methods to obtain international harmony of results
42
Conventions unifying substantive rules do not solve all problems
43
The importance of international unification
57
Methodological questions
58
The solution for international cases 46 The ius gentium
59
The application of the lexfori 48 The ideas of Magister Aldricus 49 The determination of the territorial limits of the juridical rules 50 The internation...
63
Friedrich Carl von Savigny
65
The intrinsic contradiction of the national conflict rules 56 Dionisio Anzilotti and Georges Scelle 57 Julius Schnell and Alexander Niedner
68
The partial separation of the conflict rules from the civil code by the German legislator EGBGB
69
The application of foreign law
71
Application of foreign public law rules
72
The resolution of the Institut de droit international 1975
74
The observance of the foreign interterritorial rules
75
The position of the revised version of the German Introductory Law to the Civil Code EGrFBGB
76
The observance of the foreign interpersonal rules
77
Solution of the problem when there are no foreign interterritorial or intertemporal rules
78
The problem of renvoi
79
The solutions accepted by recent codifications
80
Justification of a different solution for renvoi and for interterri torial problems
81
The attitude adopted by the Civil Code of Peru 1984
84
Public policy
86
The functioning of the conflict rule
87
The ideas of Savigny 86 The position of Mancini 87 Difficulties when dealing with public policy 88 The examples proposed by Savigny 89 The nec...
90
Competence assigned to a foreign
91
The juridical rupture
92
The determination of the fundamental principles of the lexfori
93
Internal and international public policy rules 95 Inconveniences of the denomination international 96 The attitude of Uruguay regarding the Montevi...
94
The 1902 Marriage Convention
95
Temporal variability of the fundamental principles 102 The determination a posteriori 103 Abuses arising out of this method 104 The ideas of von B...
101
The evasion of the law Fraude a la loi
102
The maximfraus omnia corrumpit 112 Importance of fraud in private international
111
The Bauffremont affaire
113
The initial facts of the case
114
The second chapter
115
The Belgian position
116
The necessary conditions for its intervention
117
Voluntary change of the connecting factor
118
The subjective intention
119
Difficulties of its determination
120
The new positions on this matter
121
The necessary evasion of the lexfori
122
Protection against evasion of foreign laws
123
Comparative law teachings
124
The individual right to change the connecting factor
125
Uncertainty caused by the admission of the fraud doctrine
126
The attitude of recent codifications
127
The territorial limits of the international public policy rules 154 The lois dapplication immediate 155 Their characteristics 156 Various proposals to d...
129
Criteria to identify the lois dapplication immediate
134
Their differentiation from mere substantive rules 165 The foreign mandatory rules
135
The Venezuelan draft 1963
136
The foreign mandatory rules of a third State 167 The position of the Venezuelan draft 1963
137
The Benelux Convention 173 The resolution of the Institut de droit international 1971
138
The Rome Convention 1980
141
The vested rights doctrine
143
The Brazilian draft 1964
154
The resolution of the Instituto HispanoLusoAmericano de Derecho Internacional 1974
159
Possible problems in international controversies
185
The negative conflicts
186
The positive conflict when all laws agree
187
The renvoi and the vested rights
188
The positive conflict with no agreement among the laws concerned
189
The opinion of Francescakis
190
The Argentinian draft 1974
191
The position of the Benelux Convention
192
Its revision in 1988
193
The bilateralization of the unilateral rules
201
The First Restatement 1934 and the Yale School
202
The reaction of David F Cavers 1933
204
Cook and Lorenzen
205
Difficulties to localize certain factual situations
206
The accumulative and alternative bilateral conflict rules
207
Inadequacy of the classical method
208
General problems caused by the traditional system
209
Negative character of the initial criticisms against the First Restate ment
210
Cavers principles of preference
211
Final comment on Cavers doctrine
212
Brainerd Currie
213
The determination of the policies
214
No State interested in the case
215
Only one State interested false conflict
216
Moderate determination of the policies
217
The Benelux Convention 140 The Montevideo Convention 1979
218
Its solution through the lexfori
219
Summary of his doctrine
220
The criticisms formulated against Curries position
221
Elliot E Cheatham and Willis L M Reese
222
The Second Restatement
223
Its approval by the American Law Institute
224
Communautes europeennes et pays en voie de developpement
225
Albert A Ehrenzweig
226
The latest summary of his ideas
227
Criticism of his doctrine
228
Common features of the recent American theories
229
The great freedom acknowledged to the courts
230
Their pretension to mainly solve interterritorial cases
231
The influence in Europe of the new ideas
232
Predominance of the bilateral conflict rules on the Continent
233
Bilateral conflict rules expressing certain substantive policies
234
Resultoriented rules with escape clauses
235
The codification of private international law 183
236
Bavarian 1756 and Prussian 1796 Codes
237
The Code Napoleon 1804
239
Conflict rules in laws regulating the legal condition of aliens
240
Doctrinal independence of private international
241
Its separate teaching at the universities
242
The unification of the conflict rules within the legal system
253
Renewal of the discussion on the convenience to codify
254
The position of the opponents
255
As obstacle to international unification
256
The supporters of codification
257
The report of the Massachusetts Commission in 1837
259
The importance of codification to correct defects or to foster policies
260
Recent efforts in Louisiana
261
The new attitude of the Peoples Republic of China 1986
263
Position adopted by national legislators on this point
264
The Montevideo Convention 1979
266
The spatial limitation of the juridical rules 268 Different ways to formulate bilateral conflict rules
268
The methods used by national legislators
269
The rigid rules
270
The flexible rules
271
Intermediate formulae
272
The admission of escape clauses
273
The escape clause in Austria 1978 Switzerland IPRG and in Quebecs draft 1988
274
The Rome Convention and the escape clause
275
The Second Restatement
276
Provisory conclusion on codification
277
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