A Survey of Distributed Multimedia: Research, Standards and Products
A survey of state-of-the-art in multimedia networking in Europe. Over 50 research projects, 35 standards & over 30 products are described, including information on: funding body, participants, timescale, project aims, description, contact point & more.
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18 January 1992 Product name 1993 Project name 21 December Apple Macintosh architecture audio and video BERKOM Brief description Britain Phone broadband CCITT client codec compression Computer conference Contact point database Date of entry December 1992 Name December 1992 Product deﬁnes desktop Detailed description documents encoding environment ﬁles format Funding body Further information Future plans graphics Group Group Computing hardware hypermedia HyTime implementation interactive interface Internet IP multicast IPEG ISDN January 1993 Project JPEG kbit Lancaster University Manufacturer MHEG movie MPEG multi multimedia applications Multimedia Communications Network Voice Protocol object Papers Participants pixel Platform Project aims QuickTime real-time Reference Model remote conferencing reports RIFF server SGML SPARCstation speciﬁcation Sponsoring body Standards StarWorks Teledoc teleservices Timescale tion toolkit types University College London UNIX Version videoconferencing WhiteMail Windows workstations
Page 92 - IP multicasting is the transmission of an IP datagram to a "host group" a set of zero or more hosts identified by a single IP destination address. A multicast datagram is delivered to all members of its destination host group with the same "best-efforts...
Page 93 - In particular, it is designed to provide facilities to include multiple objects in a single message, to represent body text in character sets other than US-ASCII, to represent formatted multi-font text messages, to represent non-textual material such as images and audio fragments, and generally to facilitate later extensions defining new types of Internet mail for use by cooperating mail agents.
Page 146 - The WWW world consists of documents, and links. Indexes are special documents which, rather than being read, may be searched. The result of such a search is another ("virtual") document containing links to the documents found. A simple protocol ("HTTP") is used to allow a browser program to request a keyword search by a remote information server.
Page 146 - It aims to allow information sharing within internationally dispersed teams, and the dissemination of information by support groups. Originally aimed at the High Energy Physics community, it has spread to other areas and attracted much interest in user support, resource discovery and collaborative work areas.
Page 80 - JPEG is a standardized image compression mechanism. JPEG stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group, the original name of the committee that wrote the standard. JPEG is designed for compressing either full-color (24 bit) or grey-scale digital images of "natural
Page 80 - ... also based. Thus, JPEG is intended for compressing images that will be viewed by human beings. If images need to be machine-analyzed, the small errors introduced by JPEG may pose a problem, even if they are invisible to the human eye. A useful property of JPEG is that the degree of loss of information can be varied by adjusting compression parameters. This means that the image maker can trade off file size against output image quality. One can make extremely small files if one doesn't mind poor...
Page 73 - H.261 describes the video coding and decoding methods for the moving picture component of audiovisual services at the rate of px 64 kbit/s, where p is in the range 1 to 30.
Page 17 - Since the ISO-OSI Reference Model focusses mainly on point-to-point communication between entities functionally equivalent, the BERKOM Reference Model develops concepts and mechanisms for the cooperation of diverse functional entities to provide a framework for the development of distributed applications. The roles identified in each application field are supported by a common layered communication architecture. The need for an Open Distributed Processing...
Page 79 - JBIG is to replace the current, less effective group 3 and 4 fax algorithms. JBIG models the redundancy in the image as the correlations of the pixel currently being coded with a set of nearby pixels called the template. An example template might be the two pixels preceding this one on the same line, and the five pixels centred above this pixel on the previous line. Note that this choice only involves pixels that have already been seen from a scanner.
Page 80 - ... details aren't perceived as well as small details of light and dark. Thus JPEG is intended for compressing images that will be looked at by humans. If you plan to machine-analyze your images, the small errors introduced by JPEG may well be a problem for you, even if they are invisible to the eye.