Comparative Biomechanics: Life's Physical World
Why do you shift from walking to running at a particular speed? How can we predict transition speeds for animals of different sizes? Why must the flexible elastic of arterial walls behave differently than a rubber tube or balloon? How do leaves manage to expose a broad expanse of surface while suffering only a small fraction of the drag of flags in high winds?
The field of biomechanics--how living things move and work--hasn't seen a new general textbook in more than two decades. Here a leading investigator and teacher lays out the key concepts of biomechanics using examples drawn from throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Up-to-date and comprehensive, this is also the only book to give thorough coverage to both major subfields of biomechanics: fluid and solid mechanics.
Steven Vogel explains how biomechanics makes use of models and methods drawn from physics and mechanical engineering to investigate a wide range of general questions--from how animals swim and fly and the modes of terrestrial locomotion to the way organisms respond to wind and water currents and the operation of circulatory and suspension-feeding systems. He looks also at the relationships between the properties of biological materials--spider silk, jellyfish jelly, muscle, and more--and their various structural and functional roles.
While written primarily for biology majors and graduate students in biology, this text will be useful for physical scientists and engineers seeking a sense of the state of the art of biomechanics and a guide to its rather scattered literature. For a still wider audience, it establishes the basic biological context for such applied areas as ergonomics, orthopedics, mechanical prosthetics, kinesiology, sports medicine, and biomimetics.
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Setting the Stage
Size and Scale
Gases and Liquids Fluids at Rest
Viscosity and the Patterns of Flow
The Forces of Flow
A Matter of Materials
Biological Materials Tuning Properties Properly
More Complex Materials Viscoelasticity
Simple Structures Beams Columns Shells
Less Simple Structural Matters
Fluid Events near Surfaces
Where Flows Are Inside
More about Circulatory Systems
Flows in Small Worlds
Thrust for Flying and Swimming
Moving at the AirWater Interface
Solids and Structures