## Mathematics DictionaryThroughout the preparation of each edition of this dictionary, the guiding objective has been to make it useful for students, scientists, engineers, and others interested in the meaning of mathemati cal terms and concepts. It is intended to be essentially complete in the coverage of topics that occur in precollege or undergraduate college mathematics courses, as well as covering many topics from beginning graduate-level courses. In addition, many other interesting and important mathematical concepts are included. When preparing this edition, emphasis was given on revising and updating topics included in previous editions and to introducing many new topics, so as to reflect recent interesting and exciting developments in mathematics. An important feature continued and extended in this edition is the multilingual index in French, German, Russian, and Spanish. The English equivalents of mathemati cal terms in these languages enable the reader not only to learn the English meaning of a foreign-language mathematical term, but also to find its definition in the body of this book. Although this is by no means a mere word dictionary, neither is it an encyclopedia. It is a correlated condensation of mathematical concepts, designed for time-saving reference work. Never theless, the general reader can come to an understanding of a new concept by looking up unfamiliar terms in the definition at hand and following this procedure down to familiar concepts. |

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### Contents

A | 1 |

DENOMINATE NUMBERS | 453 |

MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLS | 455 |

Trigonometry and Hyperbolic Functions | 456 |

Logic and Set Theory | 458 |

Topology and Abstract Spaces | 459 |

Mathematics of Finance | 460 |

DIFFERENTIATION FORMULAS | 461 |

INTEGRAL TABLES | 462 |

GREEK ALPHABET | 477 |

478 | |

496 | |

512 | |

533 | |

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### Common terms and phrases

algebraic analytic analytic function angle annuity axes axis Banach Banach space bounded Cartesian circle coefficients complex numbers computing conjugate constant contains continuous continuous function convergence convex coordinates curvature curve decimal defined denoted derivative differential equation distance distribution divergent series domain element ellipse equal equivalent Euclidean space Fields Medal formula fraction func function geodesic geometry given graph Hilbert space hyperbola infinite integer integral intersection interval inverse line segment linear linear transformation logarithms mathematical matrix mean measure metric metric space multiplication normal open set orthogonal parallel parameters perpendicular plane polar polygon polyhedron polynomial positive integers positive number quadratic quadric radius random variable ratio rational numbers real numbers root scalar sequence sides solution sphere spherical square subset surface symmetric tangent tensor theorem theory tion topological space transformation triangle trigonometric trigonometric functions vector space zero