## Mathematics DictionaryThroughout the preparation of each edition of this dictionary, the guiding objective has been to make it useful for students, scientists, engineers, and others interested in the meaning of mathemati cal terms and concepts. It is intended to be essentially complete in the coverage of topics that occur in precollege or undergraduate college mathematics courses, as well as covering many topics from beginning graduate-level courses. In addition, many other interesting and important mathematical concepts are included. When preparing this edition, emphasis was given on revising and updating topics included in previous editions and to introducing many new topics, so as to reflect recent interesting and exciting developments in mathematics. An important feature continued and extended in this edition is the multilingual index in French, German, Russian, and Spanish. The English equivalents of mathemati cal terms in these languages enable the reader not only to learn the English meaning of a foreign-language mathematical term, but also to find its definition in the body of this book. Although this is by no means a mere word dictionary, neither is it an encyclopedia. It is a correlated condensation of mathematical concepts, designed for time-saving reference work. Never theless, the general reader can come to an understanding of a new concept by looking up unfamiliar terms in the definition at hand and following this procedure down to familiar concepts. |

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### Contents

A | 3 |

DENOMINATE NUMBERS | 455 |

MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLS | 457 |

Trigonometry and Hyperbolic Functions | 458 |

Logic and Set Theory | 460 |

Topology and Abstract Spaces | 461 |

Mathematics of Finance | 462 |

DIFFERENTIATION FORMULAS | 463 |

INTEGRAL TABLES | 464 |

GREEK ALPHABET | 479 |

FrenchEnglish Index | 480 |

GermanEnglish Index | 498 |

RussianEnglish Index | 514 |

535 | |

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### Common terms and phrases

algebraic analytic angle axis Banach space base bounded called circle closed coefficients common complex condition consisting constant contains continuous convergence coordinates corresponding curvature curve defined denoted derivative determinant difference differential direction distance distribution division domain element equal equation equivalent exists face factor field figure finite force formula fraction function function f geometry given graph infinite integral intersection interval inverse least length limit linear logarithms mathematical matrix mean measure method multiplication normal objects operation parallel period plane polygon polynomial positive probability problem projection random ratio real numbers relation respect root rule satisfies sequence sides solution sometimes space sphere spherical square subset surface tangent tensor theorem theory tion topological transformation triangle unit usually variable vector zero